Ahmed Sâfî Bey’in Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi
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CitationAk, M. (2016). Ahmed Sâfî Bey'in Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi. Journal of Turkish Studies, 11, 17, 131-150.
Arap edebiyatının önemli sûfî karakterlerinden biri olan İbnü'lFârız ilâhî aşkı anlattığı kırk bir beyitlik el-Kasîdetü'l-Hamriyye'sini telif etmiş; şarap, meyhane ve kadeh gibi kavramlara tasavvufî anlamların yüklendiği kaside kısa sürede sûfî çevrelerce benimsenmiştir. Tasavvufî yönüyle öne çıkan kasidenin Arap, Fars ve Türk edebiyatlarında birçok tercüme ve şerhi yapılmıştır. Türk edebiyatında tespit edilen sekiz tercüme ve şerhi bulunan elKasîdetü'l-Hamriyye'nin mütercimlerinden biri Ahmed Sâfî Bey'dir. Ahmed Sâfî Bey Türkçe, Farsça ve Arapça'ya bu dillerde şiir telif edecek kadar hâkim, son dönem mutasavvıf ulemâsından olan bir Osmanlı münevveridir. Ahmed Sâfî Bey'in Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi müellifin en önemli eseri olan on sekiz cilt hacmindeki el yazması eseri Sefînetü'sSâfî'de yer alır. Sefînetü's-Sâfî müellifin kendisinden önce yahut kendisiyle aynı dönemde yaşamış şuarâ, meşâyıh ve ulemanın terceme-i hallerini aktardığı, kültür ve sanat tarihine ilişkin değerli bilgiler ihtiva eden eseridir. Sefînetü's-Sâfî'de yer alan Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi kasidenin daha önceki tercümelerinin aksine tam bir tercümedir. Mütercim tarafından daha önceki tercümelerde yer alan muğlaklıkların giderilmesi amacıyla girişildiği söylenen tercüme, kelimelerin lügat karşılıkları esas alınmak suretiyle yapılmıştır. Bununla birlikte Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi'nde Ahmed Sâfî Bey tarafından kelimelerin lügat anlamlarının dışında bir kısım tasarruflarda bulunulduğu da görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada Ahmed Sâfî Bey'in hayatı, eserleri hakkında bilgi verilmiş, müellife ait Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi'ndeki hususiyetlere değinildikten sonra tespit edilen iki nüsha karşılaştırılarak Kasîde-i Hamriyye Tercümesi'nin tenkitli neşri yapılmıştırIbn al-F?ri?, one of the leading ??f? figures of Arabic literature, composed a forty-one verse eulogy, al-Qa?ida al-Khamriyya (The Eulogy of Wine), in which he focused on the theme of divine love and soon later, the eulogy, which attributed ??f? meanings to such terms as wine, tavern and goblet, received a great welcome from the ??f? circles. The eulogy came to have a distinguished position with its ??f? character and led to the production of many translations and commentaries in Arabic, Persian and Turkish literatures. There have been produced eight translations and commentaries of al-Qa?ida al-Khamriyya in Turkish literature and A?med ?af? Begh is the author of one of them. A?med ?af? is a late Ottoman ??f? scholar and intellectual, who mastered the Turkish, Persian and Arabic languages to the extent of composing poems in them. His Qa??da-i Khamriyya Tarjumasi (Turkish Translation of the Wine Eulogy) is included in his magnum opus, Saf?nat al-?af? (The Ship of the Pure), running up to eighteen volumes and remaining still in manuscript. Saf?nat al-?af? is a biographical work that tells the life stories of the earlier or contemporary poets, shaykhs and scholars, providing valuabe information about the history of culture and arts. The Qa??da-i Khamriyya Tarjumasi, included in Saf?nat al-?af?, is a complete Turkish translation of the eulogy, unlike the former Turkish translations. By this translation, the author aimed to remove the ambiguities existing in the former translations, relying on the lexical meanings of the words occurring in the text. However, one can see that A?med ?af? Begh made some additions to the lexical or literal meanings of the words. This study is intended to investigate into the life and works of A?med ?af? Begh and analyze the Qa??da-i Khamriyya Tarjumasi, offering a critical edition of the text on the basis of a comparison of its two avaible manuscripts Ibn al-F?ri?, one of the leading poets of Arabic literature, composed a forty-one verse eulogy, the al-Qa?ida al-Khamriyya (The Eulogy of Wine), in which he focused on the theme of divine love. In his poetry, the poet attributed ??f? meanings to such terms as wine, tavern and goblet. This eulogy soon became a text that was adopted and much read by the ??f? circles. There have been produced many translations and commentaries of the al-Qa?ida al-Khamriyya in the literature of such Islamic languages as Arabic, Persian and Turkish. The most important and famous commentaries upon the al-Qa?ida al-Khamriyya were composed by D?w?d al-Qay?ar? (Shar? al-Qa?ida al-M?miyya), Sayyid ‘Al? Hamad?n? (Mash?rib al-Adhw?q), ‘Abdurra?m?n J?m? (Law?mi‘u Anw?r al-Kashf wa al-Shuh?d ‘al? Qul?b-i Arb?b al-Dhawq wa al-J?d). Commentated upon first in the Arabic language, the al-Qa?ida alKhamriyya was also construed in Persian and Turkish literatures. Following are those who commentated upon and translated the text in Turkish literature: ‘Abdussal?m bin Nu‘m?n bin Khal?l, Ism?‘?l Anqaraw? (d. 1041/1631), ‘Abdulmaj?d-i Siv?s? (d. 1049/1639), ‘Abdull?h ?al???‘Ushsh?q? (d. 1196/1782), ‘Al?iyeli Qara Mu?taf? Khulu?? Efendi, A?med ?af? Begh (d. 1344/1926), Me?med N??im (d. 1345/1926). In addition, there is one more commentary, titled Tarabangiz, which was published without an author. The al-Qa?ida al-Khamriyya has eight translations and commentaries in Turkish and A?med ?af? Begh is the author of one of them. A?med ?af? Begh is a late Ottoman ??f? scholar and intellectual, who mastered the Turkish, Persian and Arabic languages to the extent of composing poems in them. The biographical sources relate that he was an antinomian ??f? (mal?m? mashrab), a quite humble, goodhumored, pious and learned person. He acted in different bureaucratic positions and befriended the class of scholars of his time. To our knowledge, A?med ?af? Begh has three works and a journal envolving his essays. Of them, one is his antology in manuscript, which is composed of 58 folios and still unpublished. Another is a booklet, Majm?‘am, which he published between the years 1893 and 1894. The work contains his essays on literature, poems, wits and a commentary upon a chapter from the Alfiyya by Im?m M?lik. There is also a journal, titled Shu‘la (The Flash) that contained his essays and was published in every two weeks by his young followers. Apart from all of these, he has his magnum opus, Saf?nat al-?af?, running up to eighteen volumes and remaining still in manuscript. Saf?nat al-?af? is an important biographical work that tells life stories of the earlier or contemporary poets, shaykhs and scholars, providing valuabe information about the history of culture and arts. It took the author longer than ten years to complete this work. He composed the Qa??da-i Khamriyya Tarjumasi in the year 1922 and included in his magnum opus, Saf?nat al-?af?. It is a complete Turkish translation of the eulogy, unlike the former Turkish translations. The earlier commentators and translators of the text failed to produce a complete translation. The author says that he translated the eulogy with the aim of removing the ambiguities existing in the earlier translations. For him, people could not understand the eulogy because they did not know Arabic well, thus the translations and commentaries of the text were teeming with shortcomings. In his translation of the Qa??da-i Khamriyya, A?med ?af? Begh first cited the Arabic original verses; he afterwards provided their Turkish translation in conformity with their lexical meaning under the title Ma‘?li (Its Translation). Nevertheless, one can observe that he every now and then diverged from the literal meaning to reveal the true meaning meant by the author. For example, the word shar?b occurring in the Arabic text was rendered by A?med ?af? Begh with his interpretation and additions as shar?b-i mu?abbat, shar?b-i ?ar?wat-i nis?b, shar?b-i sur?r anj?m, shar?b-i ?tash-n?b, shar?b-i ?u?bat-nis?b, shar?b-i kar?mat-ma’?b, shar?b-i n?b-i maykh?na-i ?aq?qat, b?da-i golfam-i mu?abbat, b?da-i golfam-i mawaddat, b?da-i ?aq?qat, b?da-i ma ‘rifat, b?da-i por-ta‘th?r, b?da-i kh?sh-guv?r, b?da-i hid?yat-p?r?, may-i t?bda. Making such divergences from the literal meaning, A?med ?af? Begh renders a phrase occurring in the text, which one can translate as the people of wine session, as arb?b-i isti‘d?d, that is, the people of aptitude. He also from time to time happens to make additions to the text in translation without causing any ambiguity in meaning. Though limited to very few verses, he added a couple of explanatory remarks following the translation of the verses. Upon the translation of the first verse, he quotes a quadruple from R?shan? due to the contextual relavence. I have discovered two manuscript copies of the Qa??da-i Khamriyya Tarjumasi, one of them being the autograph of the author. One copy is registered in the Microfilm Archive of Süleymaniye Library, no. 2096, while the other is registered in Istanbul Metropolitan Atatürk Library, Osman Ergin Manuscripts, no. 332. In this study, I first provided information on A?med ?af? Begh’s life and works. This section I wrote by drawing on the author’s own works, the late Ottoman sources and modern studies. Afterwards, I discussed the salient features of the Qa??da-i Khamriyya Tarjumasi, which distinguish it from other translations. I prepared a critical edition by comparing two manuscript copies of the text. The study ends with a general assessment of the poet and his poetry
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)