TOPOGRAFYANIN MİNİMUM EKSTREM SICAKLIKLARA ETKİSİ (KARAMAN-HADİM ÖRNEĞİ)
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Araştırma sahası, Karaman (Merkez ilçe) ile Hadim (Konya) ilçe merkezini kapsar. Karaman (1023 m), Orta Torosların kuzey eteklerinde, Hadim (1552 m) ise Taşeli Platosu üzerinde yer alır. Karaman'dan 529 m daha yüksekteki Hadim'in en düşük (ekstrem) sıcaklığı -19.6 C iken, Karaman'da bundan daha düşük değerler 5 farklı ayda (Kasım, Aralık, Ocak, Şubat ve Mart) 36 kez tekrarlanmıştır. Bu çalışma, Karaman ile Hadim'in ekstrem minimum sıcaklık değer ve frekanslarının gösterdiği anormal farklılığın nedenlerini tespite yöneliktir. Çalışma yürütülürken her iki meteoroloji istasyonlarının 19802011 yılları arasındaki verileri kullanılmıştır. Analiz ve hesaplamalarda SPSS 23 ile Office 2010 ve çizimlerde Mapinfo 11 ile Global Mapper 18 programları kullanılmıştır. İklim elemanlarına ait ortalamalar bir bölgedeki genel iklim tipini karakterize eder. Oysa kritik zamanlarda oluşan hava olayları ihmal edilemeyecek kadar büyük etkilere sahiptir. Onun için iklim çalışmalarında ortalamalar yanında, en yüksek (maksimum-azami) ile en düşük (minimum-asgari) değerler ve don olaylı günler, soğuk ve sıcak hava dalgaları, fırtınalar, hortumlar, sağanaklar gibi kısa süreli fakat etkileri yönünden önemli olaylar da dikkate alınması gerekir. Ekstrem minimum sıcaklıklar, Türkiye'de Sibirya kökenli çok soğuk hava kütlelerinin etkili olduğu dönemlerde gerçekleşmektedir. Karaman'ın topografyası, havanın hareketini zayıflatarak bir taraftan zeminden kaynaklı soğumaya (termik inversion), diğer taraftan da soğuyan havanın alçalmasına (mekanik inversion) yol açmaktadır. Hadim çevresindeki parçalanmış arazi ise havayı nispeten daha hareketli bir hale getirerek çok düşük sıcaklıkların oluşmasına engel olmaktadırThis study has been carried out in the region including Karaman province center and Hadim (Konya) district center. Karaman (1023 m) is located in the northern foothills of the Central Taurus, and Hadim (1552 m) is located on the Taşeli Plateau. The lowest (extreme) temperature of Hadim, which has an altitude that is 529 m higher than that of Karaman, was -19.6C; while lower than this values in Karaman were repeated 36 times in 5 different months (November-March). This study aims to determine the reasons for the abnormal difference in Karaman and Hadim's extreme minimum temperature values and frequencies. During the study, data from both meteorological stations between 1980 and 2011 have been used. In the analysis and calculations, SPSS 23 and Office 2010; and in plotting Mapinfo 11 and Global Mapper 18 programs were used. The average of climate elements characterizes the general climate type in a region. However, air events that occur during critical times are so large that they can not be neglected. For this reason, besides the averages in climate studies, it is also important to take into account short-term but significant events such as maximum and minimum values and frosty days, cold and warm air fluctuations, storms, hoses and torrents must. Extreme minimum temperatures occur during the periods that extremely cold air masses from Siberia become effective in Turkey. Karaman's topography leads cooling down caused by the ground (thermal inversion) on one hand, and descending of the cooled air (mechanical inversion) on the other hand, by slowing down the movements of the air. In addition, the fragmented terrain around Hadim makes the air relatively more motile and prevents the formation of extremely low temperatures The basis of climate studies is meteorological measurements. Also, meteorological observations are used. Meteorological measurements consist of periodic weather events such as temperature, precipitation, pressure, wind, humidity, cloudiness. By taking the average of meteorological data for many years, climate characteristics of a place are determined. Averages for climate elements characterize the general climate in a region, but they may not reflect all weather events, and this is usually caused by a uniform continuity idea. However, air events that occur at critical times have such great effects that it can not be ignored. For this reason, besides the averages in climate studies, it is also important to take into account short-term but significant events such as maximum and minimum values and frosty days, cold and warm air fluctuations, storms, hoses and torrents must. When the temperature is examined, which is one of the most important elements of the climate, maximum and minimum temperatures are of great importance besides the daily average temperatures. Although the lives of living things are largely tied to the average, the critical threshold depends on the upper and lower values. For this reason, it is extremely important to consider the data of the maximum and minimum temperature together with the data of the extreme high and extreme low temperature. Such weather events, which do not have a significant effect on the average, can completely destroy some agricultural products, such as a cold weather mass that is sometimes effective. This research is concerned with a contradiction between Karaman and Hadim's minimum extreme temperature values. Normally, as it rises, the air cools by about 0.5 C every 100 meters. Karaman, 529 m lower than Hadim, has been detected in meteorological records where the extremes minimum temperatures have dropped to much lower values. In some cases, the temperature increases as the altitude increases as a contradiction. This is called temperature inversion. On days when inversion is experienced, the temperature of the earth generally falls below 0 C and freezing occurs. In such cases, as the water vapor in the air intensifies and a thin fog covering the floor can also be seen. In such days when stagnant weather conditions prevail where winds do not blow, industrial and urban sources of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter are trapped in the lower floors of the atmosphere. Inversion events have a direct impact on human health, such as air pollution. It also has significant effects on economic activities. When considered the relationship between strong periods of inversion and extreme minimum temperature, agriculture and transportation are adversely affected. This research covers Karaman (Central District) and Hadim (Konya) district centers. The distance between the two centers is about 75 km. Karaman is located at the intersection of the northern slopes of Central Taurus Mountains and Central Anatolia Plain. Hadim (1552 m) is located on a plateau broken by the Göksu River and its branches, which are included in the Mediterranean. According to meteorological data between 1980 and 2011, the annual average temperature is 12.1 C in Karaman and 10.0 C in Hadim. The minimum average annual temperature is 5.4 C in Karaman and 4.9 C in Hadim. Considering the altitude of the two centers, it is normal for Karaman's minimum average temperature to be high. Because Karaman is lower altitude than Hadim. While this is the annual average and minimum average temperature values, Karaman's extreme minimum temperature values differed. It is noteworthy that the extreme minimum temperature is -19.6 C (February 15, 2004) at Hadim (1552 meters altitude) and -28 C (February 5, 1991) at Karaman (1023 meters altitude). Moreover, in the Karaman, temperatures observed 36 times lower than Hadim’s extreme minimum temperatures in 5 different months (November, December, January, February, and March). This situation is important for both cities’ agriculture, husbandry, the economy of transportation and other living conditions. This study is for the detect reasons of Karaman’s abnormal difference of extreme minimum temperatures and frequencies while locating 529 m lower than Hadim. Data of meteorology stations of Karaman and Hadim between 1980- 2011 are used in calculations and analysis. Station of Karaman’s data about minimum temperatures after 2011 eliminated because of lack of data. SPSS 23, Office 2010 for analyses and calculations, MapInfo 11 and Global Mapper 18 for drawings are used in this study. The previous land works and studies have used for the contribution. Temperatures are very low when the Siberian cold air masses are effective in Turkey. In this case, the air movements are directed to the shore from the inner regions. In those situations, the ground is snow-covered and the air is clear for both location. In spite of the similarity of air conditions, Karaman’s topographic conditions ensure that the air is stagnant but the rugged terrain around Hadim causes to the movement of the air. Cooling from the ground (Thermic inversion) and cooling air goes down by slowly (mechanic inversion) via subsidence happens because of stability of Karaman’s air movements. Due to minimum extreme temperature actualize lower than Hadim which is located at higher altitude. In order to confirm this, an analysis was made between the minimum temperatures of Ankara and Karaman where the measurements related to temperature inversion were made and a correlation of 62.3% was found. Correlations continued in the months, which are increased minimum temperature severity and increased frequencies. After the increased correlation until 80.6% in the March of 1985, Temperature inversion in Ankara between 27 February and 8 March investigated and it has been reached to same situation happened in Karaman, too. Temperature Inversion has important effects on agriculture, transportation, and air pollution. So while planning possible places to observe Temperature inversion, possible effects should taken into consideration.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)