68-72 Aylık Okul Öncesine ve İlkokula Devam Eden Çocukların Okula Uyum ve Öğretmenleriyle İlişkilerinin Karşılaştırılması
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Araştırmanın amacı, 68-72 aylık okul öncesi eğitime ve ilkokula devam eden çocukların okula uyum ve öğretmenleriyle ilişkilerinin karşılaştırılmasıdır. Araştırmanın örneklem grubunu, Denizli il merkezinde ilkokul 1. sınıf ve okul öncesi eğitime devam eden 68-72 aylık 64 çocuk oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama araçları olarak Okula Uyum Öğretmen Değerlendirme Ölçeği ve Öğrenci-Öğretmen İlişki Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Sonuçlara göre çocukların okula uyum değişkenlerinde (işbirlikli katılım, kendi kendini yönetme, okuldan kaçınma, okulu sevme) sınıf türü açısından anlamlı düzeyde farklılık bulunmamaktadır. Öğretmen-çocuk ilişkileri açısından ise iki grup arasında farklılık bulunmaktadır. Şöyle ki, öğretmene yakınlık, bağlılık ve genel öğretmen-çocuk ilişkisi açısından anasınıfına devam eden çocukların ilkokul 1. sınıfa devam eden akranlarına göre daha yüksek puanlar aldıkları belirlenmiştir. Öğretmenle çatışma değişkeninde ise 1. sınıfa devam eden çocuklar, diğer gruptaki akranlarına göre daha yüksek puanlar almışlardırThe purpose of the study is to compare 68-72 months pre-school and primary school children's relationships with their teachers and their school adjustment. The sub goals of research include: - Does 68-72 months children's school orientation levels (school avoidance, school liking, cooperative participation, self-directiveness) differentiate according to the class variable? - Does 68-72 months children's teacher-child relationships (dependency, closeness, conflict, general teacher-child relationship) differentiate according to the class variable? Relational screening model was used in the study. A total of sixty-four children who attend preschools and primary schools under the Ministry of Education in Denizli were the participant of this study. Among these children, 34 (53.1%) of them are in the 1st grade of primary schools and 30 (46.9%) of them are in the kindergartens of primary schools. Gender distribution is as follows: 11 (36.7%) of pre-school children were girls and 19 (63.3%) were boys. 21 (61.8%) of children attending primary school in the 1st grade were girls and 13 (38.2%) were boys. All of the children are between 68-72 months and show natural growing features. In the study, there are three 1st grade primary schools and two pre-schools within two primary schools. In this research, three data collection tools; The Personal Information Form, Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment for 5-6 Years of Children and Student-Teacher Relationship Scale were used. Having 28 items, the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Pianta, 2001) is a self-report instrument and was designed to evaluate a teacher's perception of her or his relationship with a target student. Items are scored from 1 to 5 (1 definitely does not apply; 2 not really; 3 neutral, not sure; 4 applies somewhat; and 5 definitely applies). Being designed to be used for 4-8 year-old children, this instrument contains three subscales: Conflict (12 items) measures the teacher's feelings of negativity and conflict with the student; Closeness (11 items), the teacher's feelings of affection and open communication with the student; Dependency (5 items), the teacher's perception of the student as overly dependent. Higher scores indicating a better student-teacher relationship. Items 4 and 19 have been reverse scored (Pianta, 2001). Being a teacher report instrument, Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment for 5-6 Years of Children was developed by G. W. Ladd, B. Kochenfender, and C. Coleman in 1996 to assess school adjustment of preschool children. The scale has 27 items and 4 subscales (school avoidance, school liking, cooperative participation, self-directiveness). Each item in the scale is assessed by using the three-point Likert described as, "doesn"t apply", "applies sometimes", and "certainly applies" (Birch, & Ladd 1997). The scale was adapted into Turkish by Önder and Gülay (2010). During adaptation studies, two items were excluded from the scale. Turkish version of the scale involves 25 items. The subscale "school liking" has 5 items and measures the perception of teacher about how much the child likes the school. The subscale "cooperative participation" involves 8 items and measures the children's adoption level in terms of authority of teacher, class rules, and responsibilities. Having 5 items, the sub-scale "school avoidance" determines the perception of teacher about the tendency of children towards avoiding from class environment. The subscale "self-directiveness" includes 7 items and measures independent and self-centred behaviours of children in the classroom. Internal consistency coefficient of the scale was found as .70 for whole scale. Internal consistency coefficients of sub-scales ranged between .67 and .84 (Önder, & Gülay, 2010). The scale can be assessed in line with sub-scales and also over total score. Highness of total scores obtained from subscales and whole scale indicates the high level of school adjustment. At the beginning of the research, 10 schools (5-1st grade primary school, 5-kindergartens) were determined from the list of schools in the center of Denizli randomly. After obtaining the necessary permits related to research, schools were visited. During the visit, two 1st grade and three pre-schools stated their unwillingness to participate in the research. The study was performed in three 1st grade primary schools and two pre-schools that accepted the research. Teachers were informed in detail about the measurement tools and the aim of the study before data collection process.In the study, Ttest was used for independent samples. According to the results of the research, there is no significant difference in terms of class type in the children"s school orientation variables (school avoidance, school liking, cooperative participation, selfdirectiveness). In terms of teacher-child relationships, there are differences between the two groups. Namely, pre-school children received high scores than their peers from 1st grade of primary schools in terms of teacher dependency, closeness and general teacher-child relationship. However, in the "conflict with teacher" variable, children from 1st grade received high scores than their peers from other group.
SourceOndokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi