Spikerlik eğitiminde boğumlama ve ses bozukluklarının düzeltilmesinde ses eğitimi yöntemlerinin etkisi
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CitationYiğit, N., Nurol, S. (2012). Spikerlik eğitiminde boğumlama ve ses bozukluklarının düzeltilmesinde ses eğitimi yöntemlerinin etkisi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 0, 28, 237 - 246.
Bu çalışma, seslerini profesyonel olarak kullanacak olan spikerlik eğitimi alan bireylerde boğumlama ve ses bozukluklarının düzeltilmesinde ses eğitiminin etkisini araştırmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Kontrol gruplu ön test-son test deneysel modele göre yapılan çalışmada, spikerlik eğitimi almakta olan bireylerden, boğumlama ve /veya ses bozuklukları belirlenen 16 öğrenci, 8’er kişilik iki gruba ayrılarak, bunlardan biri “kontrol grubu”, diğeri de “deney grubu” olarak adlandırılmıştır. Deney grubundaki bireylere 10 hafta süreyle ses eğitimi uygulanmıştır. Bu süre sonunda, çalışma öncesinde yapılan ölçüm ve değerlendirmeler her iki grupta da yeniden yapılmıştır. Ön test ve son test değerlendirmeleri kamera kayıtları üzerinde üç uzman tarafından yapılmıştır. Kontrol ve deney gruplarından, çalışma öncesinde ve çalışma sonrasında elde edilen veriler istatistik olarak analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda kontrol ve deney grupları arasında, hem çalışma öncesinde, hem de çalışma sonrasında elde edilen akustik ve aerodinamik ölçüm verileri Fo (Temel Frekans), Jitter, Shimmer, NHR (Noice Harmonic Ratio), MFS (Maksimum Fonasyon Süresi), S/Z oranı) bakımlarından önemli farklılıklar bulunmamıştır. Boğumlama ve ses bozuklukları değerlendirme formundan elde edilen verilerin (/r/ (gılama), /s/ (ıslıklama), /ş/, /c/, /ç/, /z/, hızlı boğumlama, ağır boğumlama, şiddete ilişkin bozukluk, perdeye ilişkin bozukluk, tona ilişkin bozukluk (garık ses ve gırtlak sesi) değerlendirmesi sonucunda, bu bozukluklar bakımından kontrol grubunda değişme olmadığı, ancak deney grubunda gelişme sağlandığı belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuçlar ışığında uygulanan ses eğitimiyle belirlenen boğumlama ve ses bozukluklarında gelişme sağlandığı sonucuna varılmıştır.People who use in their professionals are defined as &#8220;Professional Voice Users&#8221;. Whereas voice disorders do not hinder those who do not use their voices in their professional lives; however, it does hinder the continuity the professional lives of those who do. The professional speakers who are to have voice education are first of all to be aware of their speech organs and their functions. Moreover, they have to be aware how the sounds are produced by the movements of the speech organs and be aware and pay attention to all the issues related to correct and beautiful speech or voicing (Alçın, 1999). The professional features of a professional whose duty is to speak, in other words of the speaker, newsman, necessitate him to be more skilled and more able than just any speaker (Kayador, 1993: 26). The sounds of speech are studied under two headings; voiced and voiceless. Whereas the utterances of the voiced sounds are labeled as pronunciation, the utterance of the voiceless are defined as articulation. In both instances the effect of respiration are of utmost importance. If we aim to have a good voice and use our language correctly and beautifully, to learn conscious respiration is of primary importance. Those who breathe in, breathe out, and use their breath during their speech consciously will face fewer difficulties throughout the time after their voice education (çevik, 2002). Besides all these, the enrichment of the voice through the increase in the resonance spaces enables it placement on to the masque. The resonance area that we always need and can process is at the highest level possible in the cheeks, eyes and forehead. With the correct articulation including the resonance of the sound, positive results can be obtained in the increase of the voice quality. &#8220;Articulation is the basic condition of meaningful voicing. Without an efficient articulation, speech is meaningless. Even if an utterance is at a high pitch, unless the articulation is insufficient, words will be meaningless and speech futile&#8221; (Özben, 1989: 43). Major articulation errors are; laxity, guttural, hissing, alteration, fixation, slow and fast paced articulation. Voice disorders; however are considered as disorders related to volume, pitch, tone, and flexibility. The aim of voice education at large is; to make them use their voice while speaking or singing in their way of living in the most correct, beautiful, and efficient way and to enable individuals to form habits for the protection of their voices. The individuals who require voice education to use their voices professionally in order to become speakers and newsman need to be determined whether or not they have adequate respiration, correct articulation, and qualified voice formation as a result of the voice education they have had. . The present study is important as it is a novel study in this area trying to determine the effects of voice education methods on the articulation and correction of voice disorders in speaker education. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of voice training on the correction of voice disorders and articulation of the individuals receiving education in order to use their voices professionally. 16 students receiving education to become professional speaker with articulation and/or voice disorders were divided into two cohorts consisting of 8 participants as the control and experimental group in the present study conducted according to pre and post test experimental study model. Voice education was provided throughout a 10 week period to the members of the experimental group. At the end of this period the assessments made for both groups were repeated. The pre and post test evaluations were made using camera recordings by three experts. The data obtained before and after the study from the study and control groups were analyzed statistically. The analyses revealed no statistically significant differences before and after the study regarding the acoustic and aerodynamic measurement data with regard to Fo (Fundamental Frequency), Jitter, Shimmer, NHR (Noice Harmonic Ratio), MFS (Maximum Phonation Period), and S/Z ratio in both groups. However, considering the data obtained from articulation and voice disorder evaluation forms, there were no changes before and after the study in the control group but significant changes were apparent in the experimental group with regard to (/r/ (guttural), /s/ (hissing), /sh/, /dz/, /t&#8747;/, /z/, quick articulation, slow articulation, emphasis disorder, pitch disorder, tone disorders (gargling voice and guttural voice). These outcomes enables the assumption that voice education have an impact on the improvement of articulation and voice disorders.
SourceSelçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi