Bireysel ses eğitimi dersi I. sınıf öğrencilerinin akustik rinometri ve ses analizi verilerinin değerlendirilmesi
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CitationÖzçimen, A., Yaldız, G. (2013). Bireysel ses eğitimi dersi I. sınıf öğrencilerinin akustik rinometri ve ses analizi verilerinin değerlendirilmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 0, 29, 165-178.
Bu çalışmada burun yapısal bozukluğu bulunan bireylerde akustik rinometri ve ses analizi verilerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmaya Selçuk Üniversitesi Ahmet Keleşoğlu Eğitim Fakültesi Güzel Sanatlar Eğitimi Bölümü Müzik Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı’ında eğitim gören 40 birinci sınıf öğrencisi dâhil edildi ve Selçuklu Tıp Fakültesi K.B.B. Anabilim Dalı’nda doktor muayenesi sonucunda 12 öğrenciye septum deviasyonu, 6 öğrenciye konka hipertrofisi ve 7 öğrenciye de septum deviasyonu ve konka hipertrofisi tanısı konuldu. Ayrıca burunda yapısal bozukluk saptanmayan 15 öğrenci tespit edildi. Tüm öğrencilerden veriler elde etmek için kişisel bilgi formu, nazal obstrüksiyon değerlendirme skalası (NOSE) doldurmaları istendi. İlgili uzmanlar tarafından öğrencilerin nazal kavite kesit alanı ve hacminin ölçülmesi için akustik rinometri ile fonatuar yetenek ölçümleri ve akustik ses analizi uygulandı. Verilerin analizinde tanıtıcı istatistik yöntemleri (ortalama, standart sapma) ve Mann-Whitney U testi kullanıldı. Yapılan istatistiksel değerlendirme sonuçlarına göre; burun yapısal bozukluğu bulunan öğrencilerin akustik rinometri değerlerinin düşük olması ve NOSE puanlarının yüksek olması nedeniyle; nazal solunumun ve fonatuar yetenek ölçümlerinin olumsuz etkilendiği sonucuna varıldı. Sesin akustik özelliklerinden olan temel frekans F0 ve formant frekansları F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 değerlerinde farklılık tespit edilmedi. Tüm öğrencilerin şarkıcı formantını (F3) oluşturabildikleri gözlendi.A respiratory, resonator and articulatory organ, nose is an important organ for human health. During inhalation and exhalation, nose makes the weather humid, warms it and enables the sound to become peculiar to the person, aerating the ears. Nose is an organ which provides speech and the production of sound. Nasal cavity aids the resonation and amplification of the primary sound that forms in cricoarytenoid muscles. Nasal voices are the sounds in which oral cavity is completely blocked, and the air is allowed to go out through nasal cavity. /m/,/n/ letters are in that group (Altundağ, 2008; 11). The complaint about nasal obstruction is one of the reasons for application with which the doctors of ear, nose and throat are faced often times. Sound is negatively influenced by the nasal obstruction resulting from anatomical problems (Ö. Koç, 2008; 6). In such cases as the obstructions in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx or abnormal structural situations, the obstruction of sound transmission leads to deficit in the oral and nasal resonation in the course of the transmission of sound through nasal cavity (Kummer and Lee, 1996; 272). Rhinolalia (nasal dysfunction and rhinophonia) is a speech of pathology arising out of the breakdown of nasal resonation. (Ö. Koç, 2008; 14-15). They can be seen in three forms. Hyper nasality (rhinolalia aperture) is the breakdown of resonation resulting from the velopharyngeal insufficiency. Freezing can be detected especially in famous voices notably in hyper nasality because these voices are uttered for a long time (Kummer and Lee, 1996; 272). Hypo nasality (rhinolalia cause) is called the insufficiency of nasal resonation. The nasal obstruction leading to such an abnormality results from such pathologies as upper respiratory infection, nasal structural deficits and nasal tumours (Enver and Akan, 1995; 122). Rhinolaryngitis is the case in which hyper and hypo nasality can be seen together. Velopharyngeal insufficiency and nasal pathologies and the blockage of a mass to denture in nasopharynx cause the mixed type. Resonation cannot be seen in nasal sounds (Aktaran: çağlar, 2006; 8). Since nose is a resonator organ, the structural deficits in it such as symptom deviation, concha hypertrophy, nasal valve narrowness, symptom perforation, symptom hematoma and abscess, nasoseptitis deformity and choanal atresia all lead to nasal obstruction and respiratory defection and resonation breakdown. Symptom deviation forms as a result of the breakage of the nose from the centre to the right or left. Deviation continues to form generally based on trauma and congenital (Yılmaz, 2002; 55). The most significant symptom of deviation is nasal obstruction. Due to nasal obstruction and the air not warming, not dampening or not being cleared, respiratory illnesses such as angina, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis...etc. come in to existence. Sinus nasal cavities could become blocked owing to deviation and for that reason, sinusitis might develop. Concha hypertrophy which can be seen with chronic hypertrophic rhino sinusitis, allergic rhinitis or symptom deviation is one of the most important reasons for obstruction (Köybaşı and Yılmaz, 2005; 115). The symptoms of the disease can be seen with general nose stiffening, respiratory difficulty, and the necessity to inhale and exhale through mouth, sleep deficits accompanying snoring. (Fethallah, 2005; 20). Nasal valve region is the region where respiratory passage is the narrowest and nasal resonation is the highest. Nasal valve is called the distance between septum and upper lateral cartilage. Patients complain about the nasal obstruction. Other symptoms are helminthiasis and bleeding. Septum perforation is the case in which mucoperichondrium and cartilage get exposed to inflammation. Nasal dryness, nasal stiffening, frequent crusting, action of creating whistle during respiration can be seen in the patients. Perforation affects the air passage in the nasal resonation. Septum hematom arises as a consequence of the bleeding in-between trauma and septum plates. If septum hematom is not treated, it will turn into abscess with infection. The symptoms of septum hematom are nasal stiffening, flix, nose ache and nasal weakness. Patients feel nasal swelling, headache and edema when abscess happens (Somdaş, 2005). Bilateral pleural involvement, which is most often seen in congenital nasal abnormality, can be encountered once in every 8000 living births. During the early period of development, nose is separated from pharynx with biconasal membrane. When this membrane does not disappear, it will cover posterior coanal bleeding. In the structural deficits of nose, acoustical Rhinometry is use in order to determine nasal cavity volume. As a result of acoustical Rhinometry measurements, minimal cutting areas and selected point volume can be measured in that way. The parameters such as acoustical sound frequency, vibration and periodicity are analysed. 40 first class students who read Selcuk University education faculty fine arts music major branch have been included in the study. So as to obtain data from all the students, they were asked to fill in personal information form and nasal obstruction scala. Acoustical Rhinometry together with phonatory skills measurements were applied on these students by the interested experts. Descriptive statistical methods (average, standard deviation) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the evaluation of these data. 40 first class students who read Selcuk University education faculty fine arts music major branch have been included in the study. In this study, it is aimed that the sound education can be modified in the faculty of music over the sentence &#8220;How are the sound features of the people with nasal structure deficits?&#8221; As a result of examination in ear, nose and throat major branches at the faculty of medicine at Selcuk University, septum deviation was detected in 12 students, concha hypertrophy 6 students, septum deviation and concha hypertrophy 7 students. Besides, 15 students were detected to be free of nasal defection. Because the students of BYBB have low points at NOSE, the diseases like septum deviation and conca hypertrophy narrow the nasal cavity volume, influencing phonatory talents negatively. It has been identified that the acoustic properties of the sound frequencies of the fundamental frequency F0 and formant F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 values did not differ significantly among the students of BYBS BYBB. When the arithmetic average related to the formant frequencies of the acoustical features of sound has been analysed in the students participating in the study, it is determined that (F3) formant is for the singer. At the courses giving a professional music education, voice education methods should be developed, based on the anatomical features of the organs working in constitution of voice and the structural breakdowns in such organs with their effects. Ear nose throat doctors should maintain the studies with audiologists on the basis of the thought that voice education is disciplinary. Professional voice users must learn how to sustain their voice health and take precautions against illnesses, giving importance to hygiene. It is thought that this study will be much more convenient for a larger group in terms of statistics.
SourceSelçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi