İBN TABÂTABÂ'YA GÖRE ŞİİRİN MAHİYETİ VE TÜRLERİ
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Ebu'l-Hasen İbn Tabâtabâ edebî tenkit alanında dikkat çeken isimlerden biridir. Zira klasik Arap şiirine yönelik yapıcı eleştirileri, farklı meselelerdeki yenilikçi yaklaşımları ve aynı zamanda geleneğe olan saygısı onu önemli bir isim haline getirmektedir. Edebi açıdan çok canlı bir dönemde yaşamıştır. Bu dönemde pek çok eser kaleme alınmış ve edebiyat alanında yenilik hareketleri hız kazanmıştır. İbn Tabâtabâ da eserleri ile, bu alana katkı yapan edebiyatçılardandır. Kaynaklarda sekiz eserinden söz edilmektedir. Günümüze de ulaşan 'İyâru'ş-şi'r adlı eserinde, edebî tenkit alanındaki farklı meselelere dair görüşlerini görmek mümkündür. 'İyâru'ş-şi'r, metodu ve konuları bakımından pek çok edebi tenkit eserinden farklı özelliklere sahiptir. Kendisinden önce yazılmış bazı eserlerde olduğu gibi, sadece şiir dili ve lahn gibi meselelere odaklanmamıştır. Asıl telif sebebi, şiir sanatını edebi kıstaslara göre ortaya koymaktır. Bu bağlamda İbn Tabâtabâ, farklı edebiyatçıların görüşlerini kendi tecrübe ve birikimleri ile birleştirerek, şiiri iyi-kötü şeklinde ayırt etmeyi amaçlamıştır. Bir şair olmasının da avantajı ile şiir yazımında karşılaşılabilecek güçlükleri ortaya koyarken bunların çözüm önerilerini de sunmuştur. İbn Tabâtabâ'nın edebî tenkitçiliğini farklı yönleriyle görebilme amacı taşıyan bu çalışma, şiirin mahiyeti ve türleri konuları ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Bu sınırlandırma yapılırken, tenkitçiliğinin yanı sıra bir şair olması da göz önünde bulundurulmuş ve şiir mefhumuyla ilgili fikirlerinin ayrıca önemli olduğu düşünülmüştür. Bu bağlamda öncelikle şiirin tarifi ve ön şartlarıyla ilgili olarak ortaya koyduğu düşünceler farklı edebiyatçıların görüşleri de zikredilerek değerlendirilmiştir. Ardından da lafız ve anlam ögelerini merkeze alınarak yapmış olduğu şiir tasnifi incelenmiştir.Ibn Tab?tab?, who was born in Isfahan and also mentioned that he was from Hasan's lineage, does not have any information about the year of birth in the sources. His full name is Abu'l-Hasan Muhammad b. Ahmed b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim Tab?tab? al-Hasan? al-Alew?. According to Y?qut al-Hamaw?, he completed his scholarship and died in 322/934 in Isfah?n, a place special to many poets and literati like himself. Ibn Tab?tab? lives in a very vivid period in literary terms. In this period, many works were written and innovation movements in the field of literature have gained speed. Ibn Tab?tab? is also a literary contributor to this field with his works. There are eight works mentioned in the sources. However, 'Iyaru'ş-shi'r is his most valuable work. This is the only work that can reach our time. Despite being a small work, Iy?r al-Shi'r, a very important work on the theory of classical Arab poetry, strives to reveal the poetic sentiment and its criteria in its own style. This work is not only a practical criticism book based on a comparative principle but also a theoretical literary criticism aiming at determining the method, the bases and the values of poetry art. 'Iyâr al-Shi'r has different features than many literary criticisms in terms of methods and subjects. At this point, one of the most important characteristics is that it divides different subjects into sections and puts them together with their witnesses. As in some works written before him, he did not focus on matters such as poetry and lahn. The main reason for the writing of 'İyâru'ş- şi'r is to reveal the art of poetry according to literary criteria. In this context, Ibn Tab?tab? aims to differentiate poetry into good and bad by combining the views of different literatians with his own experiences and know-how. With the advantage of being a poet, he presented the difficulties that can be encountered in writing poetry and presented suggestions for solving them. Ibn Tab?tab? is a poet and critic in the history of Arabic literature, known for his ability to memorize and his intelligence. Through his constructive criticism of classical Arabic poetry and the theory of poetry he successfully constructed according to his experience, he has influenced many important literary figures. One of the characteristics that make him different from many critics living at the same time with him is that he can look at poetry as a living human being, stripping away from solid and superficial patterns at the point of criticism of poetry. In this context it should be mentioned that Ibn Tab?tab?'s literary criticism study, which is considered to be the most precious work, is not an application book based on certain molds and comparisons but rather a literary criticism study to determine the art of poetry, its method, its rules and its values. Some aspects of poetry approach and prerequisites for writing poetry, and the ideas that he expresses in this direction, shed light on Ibn Tab?tab?'s literary criticism. Because Ibn Tab?tab?, in the description of poetry, mentioned some concepts such as literary pleasure and natural talent as well as formal figures. This is the result of his seeing poetry as a living being, and at the same time being a poet. So much so that he did not even consider it necessary for those who possess these two possessions to be knowledgeable about "ar?d", one of the essential elements of poetry. His thoughts show that he is an innovative name. However, Ibn Tab?tab? is a name that gives importance to tradition as well as being innovative. According to him, the poet must know Arabic in its purest form, memorize old poems and pass them on to future generations, possess a historian personality searching past cultures, and learn and apply classical poetry methods. Ibn Tab?tab? divided the poetry into different classes, moving from the word-meaning point of view. At this point, he was the name that developed the quadruple system that Ibn Qutayba had done before. In this context, Ibn Tab?tab? has drawn a general and theoretical framework, dividing all the poems into two parts: the solid and the gilt. Later on, he went on to the stage of application and teaching, and contacted six poetry genres. At this point, by presenting examples from poems belonging to different periods, he made a determination of the existing problems in terms of word and meaning, and then, if any, declared the solution proposals. As a result, Ibn Tab?tab?, despite having lived in the early period, is a name that reveals original ideas, is open to innovation and appreciates tradition. In this respect, it must be stated that it is a name to be taken into consideration, especially in the works to be carried out in the area of literary criticism.