Görme engelli öğrencilerin piyano eğitimi üzerine durum çalışması
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Eğitim sürecinin her birey için aynı koşullarda gerçekleşmesi beklenemez çünkü bireysel farklılıklar bireylerdeki öğrenme sürecini etkilemektedir. Özellikle özel eğitime ihtiyaç duyan bireylerin eğitimi daha önemli bir süreci kapsamalıdır çünkü normal eğitim koşulları çoğu zaman bu bireyler için yeterli olamamaktadır. Görme engelli öğrencilerin öğrenme sürecinde, bahsedilen etkileşimlerin görsel boyutunun hiç olmadığı ya da çok az mevcut olduğu varsayıldığında engelleri doğrultusunda ortaya çıkan sınırlılıklarından ötürü bir takım problemler yaşamaları ve problemlerini çözme aşamasında farklı yöntemlere ihtiyaç duymaları oldukça doğaldır. Bu araştırmada, piyano eğitiminde görme engelli bir öğrencinin mevcut durumunu ortaya koymak ve görme engellilerin piyano eğitiminde karşılaştıkları güçlüklere yönelik çözüm önerileri sunmak amacıyla, 2008-2011 yılları arasında Selçuk Üniversitesi Ahmet Keleşoğlu Eğitim Fakültesi Güzel Sanatlar Eğitimi Bölümü Müzik Öğretmenliği Anabilim Dalında eğitim görmekte olan görme engelli bir öğrencinin piyano eğitim süreci incelenmiştir. Araştırmada durum çalışması modeli kullanılmış, araştırmanın verileri gözlem ve görüşme yöntemleriyle elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu kendi piyano eğitimi sürecini değerlendiren öğrenci ve farklı yıllarda piyano derslerini yürütmüş olan iki öğretim elemanından oluşmaktadır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, öğretim elemanlarının daha önce görme engellilere yönelik eğitim almadıkları ve bu alanda hizmet içi eğitim ve seminerlerin faydalı olacağı görüşü, öğrencinin yaşadığı en temel problemlerden birinin kaynak edinmedeki güçlükler olduğu, maddi olanaksızlıklardan dolayı görme engelliler için mevcut teknolojik imkânlardan öğrencinin faydalanamamasının zaman ve enerji kaybına neden olduğu ve motivasyonunu düşürdüğü ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca öğrencinin bedenini görsel olarak imgeleyemediği için piyanoda duruş probleminin olduğu ve bu problemin çalış tekniklerini uygulaması konusunda sıkıntı yarattığı tespit edilmiştir. Aynı zamanda öğretim elemanlarının “görme engellilerle piyano dersi” açısından pedagojik donanımlarının yetersiz olduğu tespit edilmiştir.The education process cannot be expected to happen for every individual, because individual differences really influence the education process in the individuals. Especially the education of the individuals who need private education should encompass a more important process, because normal education standards are not sufficient for such individuals most of the time. However, according to the principle of equal opportunity in education, it is necessary that the so-called conditions be provided for the individuals who need private education equipped with equal opportunities. In the course of the education process of the disabled students, it is normal that they could experience some problems due to their limitations based on their obstacles when it is assumed that the aforementioned interactions do not own visual aspect or they own very little visuality and they need various methods during problem solving. In addition to the problems such as the lack and deficiency of visual side, the ability to learn is seen to be quite obstructed in the students that feel inefficiency during education process, particularly when the sense that they fall behind other students comes to the fore. At the same time, the techniques which function for other students are seen not to work for such disabled students. For that reason, in terms of effective entities in learning, such kind of students who have the same age as others certainly need &#8220;Private Education&#8221; (Kıvrak, 2003:303). In that direction, it shouldn&#8217;t be forgotten that giving lessons to such students in accordance with traditional methods slows them much more (Agay, 1981:277). It is seen that it is more efficient to start the education by adding suitable ways to the present method without thoroughly ignoring traditional methods. The most basic teaching method in that step should be that the teacher must detect the physical limitations and problems resulting from the student&#8217;s drawbacks; in addition, he must well analyse the psychological conditions that the current limitations and problems have created. It requires patience and careful planning to teach disabled students (Agay, 1981:277). The success of the programme constituted according to individual differences depends on the healthy evaluation of different ability, perception and attitudes (Kıvrak, 2003:303). In the light of all those before-mentioned, when the situation of the visually-impaired student is analysed correctly in view of both psychology and musicality, and the steps to be taken and the methods to be used should be carefully planned, it is possible to reach the targets. The likely problems which the visually-impaired students who continue education process in view of correct materials and methods are experiencing can be minimally reduced. As a result, the student&#8217;s self-confidence will increase and the effect of this situation on the education will be rather positive. In this study, it has been aimed that the individual course of a visually-impaired student and the current situations during the course are detected in the course of piano lesson which is continued at musical education &#8211; major branches and at the same time the suggestions for solutions in that respect are displayed. The possible answers to the questions as to what is the background of a visually-impaired student who read at Selcuk University Ahmet Keleşoğlu Education Faculty Musical Education Major Branches from 2008 to 2011 and his readiness in the music lessons, what is the level of readiness on education between piano instructor and the visually-impaired student, how the visually-impaired student&#8217;s study process with piano is, how the process of piano education is and whether the student benefited from the technology have been searched. The model of situational study has been used in the study. Situational study is that an individual or a community that is desired to be analysed by the researcher is to be comprehended within their natural contexts. The situation in this study is the visually-impaired student who has piano education. That&#8217;s why, since the presented situation becomes shaped within their conditions, it is only available for the relevant individual and also limited to the experiences of both the teacher and the student. The data of the study have been obtained by means of the methods such as observation, interview and document analysis. The research group of the study is composed of the student who evaluates his own piano education process and two teachers who conducted various piano lessons between 2008 and 2011. The data have been obtained by using the method of interview and observation, one of the qualitative investigation methods. One of the techniques to provide for the data in depth and abundantly among the most used methods of interview is &#8220;half structured interview technique&#8221;, which has been used in this study. The interview has been made with the visually-impaired student getting piano lesson and two instructors giving piano lesson to the student in two different periods by directing general questions about the preparation period, the impediment and the evaluation of the piano lesson. So as to increase the accountability of the interview, an expert&#8217;s view has been taken and as a result of the study, the documents have been given to the interviewees again, and they have been asked to make a general review over them and complete the missing parts. As for the observation, when a work suitable for the level of the student (Haendel&#8217;s Rem Variation) is given, the process of the work&#8217;s decipher and operation is taken under record and the observation period is taken under evaluation by two distinct researchers. The data obtained from interviews and observations have been arranged under six major titles, with the analysis of characterization method. As a result of the attained findings, it has been established that: &#8226; The instructors have not taken an education based on visually-impaired students, before and it is beneficial to provide for in-service training and seminars in that field, The student finds the position according to black buttons by means of his ears and he uses the inductive method by &#8226; memorizing the work in small parts and he starts to study articulatory signs after memorizing the work and if the composition is mainly fixed and if there is no voice omission in it, no problems about position and note failures can be experienced, &#8226; The student spoils the position of sitting since he bends over the piano more than necessarily and he therefore bulges out and becomes tired and he has problem with the transposition of body and arm weight, and the provision of operational softness due to free movement of his feet at certain times, &#8226; The student has to convert the piano composition to Braille system first of all while preparing for the lesson and this operation forces the student to make much effort and spend much time, &#8226; The instructors enable the student to recognize different periods and form structures and the melodic structure of the work is strong and there is very complex weighing in the works and there are very many alt voices in the transposition, It takes a long time to write and study a work and the course hours are insufficient in this process and the student is &#8226; rather busy since he has to put great effort into other lessons at the same time and for both the student and the instructors, anxiety and apprehension arise owing to burden the process has brought with, &#8226; As it is difficult to reach sound records of the piano compositions, the reasons generally resulting from the destitute of method and CD records can only be sorted out when the instructors take the compositions under record by constantly playing and studying it, &#8226; The difficulty with the creation of piano compositions in Braille note-writing and the destitute of ready sources cause the student to experience materialistic and moral loss and there exists an idea that the archives of the notes to be written through Braille System will be resources for the would-be students, for every type of sound and instrument to be used in musical education, &#8226; The technological devices and materials, such as book-reading machine, screen-reader, note-scanner and dotted-paper- printer, from which the visually-impaired students will benefit during education process should be provided by the universities and at the same time, the students&#8217; life qualities and comforts could be enhanced in that way.
SourceSelçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi