GÖÇ VE PARÇALANMIŞ AİLE: GÖÇÜN ARDINDA KALANLARIN “DÖNÜŞ” FİLMİNDEKİ YANSIMALARI
Göç geçmişten günümüze insanlığın en önemli toplumsal olgularından birisi olmuştur. Son dönemlerde hem göç alan hem de göç veren ülkelerden birisi olan Türkiye özellikle göç olgusunun iki boyutu olan iç ve dış göç hadisesini yoğun bir şekilde yaşamaktadır. Özellikle Anadolu'dan İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir gibi büyük kentlere doğru yapılan iç göçle birlikte yıllardır ağırlıklı olarak Avrupa ülkelerine doğru gerçekleşen tek yönlü işçi göçü hadisesi Türkiye'nin göç pratiklerinin en önemli görünümlerinden biridir. Her iki göç pratiğini de farklı dinamiklerle incelemek mümkündür. Ancak her iki göç türünde de en önemli sorunlardan birisi tek başına gerçekleşen -kısa ya da uzun süreligöçlerde ortaya çıkan aile sorunlarıdır. Bu çalışmada da özellikle dış göçle birlikte ortaya çıkan bir sorun üzerine değinilmektedir. Türkiye'den 1960'lı yıllardan bu yana çoğunlukla Avrupa ülkelerine doğru gerçekleşen dış göçün hem göç eden hem de göçün ardında kalanlar açısından çok farklı sonuçları ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu sonuçlardan birisi de göçün ardında kalanlarla birlikte ortaya çıkan "parçalanmış aile" olgusudur. Göçün en önemli sorunlu alanlarından birisi olan parçalanmış aile olgusunu özellikle bugün ülkemizin yurt dışına yoğun göç veren yerlerinde hissetmek mümkündür. Bu çalışmada "göç ve parçalanmış aile" olgusu yıllar önce yayınlanmış olan ve o günün toplumsal ve ekonomik koşullarını yansıtarak bugüne ışık tutan, "Dönüş" sinema filmi üzerinden bir analiz yapılarak açıklamaya çalışılmıştırMigration is one of the most important social phenomena of humanity from past to present. Turkey, one of the countries dealing with internal and external migration, has intensively experienced the two dimensions of the migration, namely emigration and immigration, in recent years. The one-way external immigration of the workers mainly from Anatolia to the European countries for years and the internal migration particularly to the big cities like Istanbul, Ankara and İzmir, are among the most important aspects of immigration practices in Turkey. It is possible to analyze both migration practices with different dynamics. However it is known that when one family member migrates, both types of migration cause family problems whether it is a long or short term separation. This study deals with the problem that emerges especially with external migration. The external migration from Turkey to the European countries since 1960s has resulted in very different outcomes for both immigrants and the people they have left behind. One of the results of this problem is "fragmented family phenomenon". It is possible to observe the fragmented family problem particularly in the regions of our country where external migration rate is high. This study aimed to explain the “migration and fragmented family " case by analyzing "the Return", a movie filmed years ago, which not only reflects the social and economic conditions of the past but also sheds light on today As an ancient movement migration is important political, economic and social phenomenon that occurs voluntarily or compulsorily throughout the history. Migration takes place in two different ways as internal migration and external migration. This distinction is related with places. Internal migration is a movement towards different places of the country while external migration is towards different countries. Migration is sometimes a forced movement. People sometimes are forced to migrate for reasons such as wars, disasters, earthquakes and political problems. Today, migration of millions of people Syria due to war is the best example of forced displacement. Migration is sometimes a voluntary act. People choose to migrate to different countries with the desire to live better. This migration is more about business (economy) and big cities and big countries/cities attract people for migration. Turkey has experienced both migration forms intensively for decades. Various social and economic problems that come forth in both forms have been analyzed so far. However, most of the research on migration is mainly about immigrants, which has led the studies on migration to be limited to one aspect of the phenomenon heavily. The amount of the research into the people left behind is more than the research into immigrants themselves. This study aimed to make an analysis through the movie “Return”, which was about the people left behind the migration. The movie “Return” , though it was produced in 1973, is of significant importance as it reveals the social problems of its period and exhibits the “broken families” problem that appeared following the migration as well as its reflections on our time . It also gives us a chance to make comparisons about “broken families” issue which is still a current problem today. The external migration which began in 1960s in our country as a voluntary movement to find a new job and set up a new life still continues today with similar and differing aspects. The mobility, which is usually one way, between Turkey and Europe can be said to have both advantages and disadvantages in short and long term. The migration issue, which was initiated to meet the labor need and close the employment gap, has caused radical changes in the social structure of Turkey and the migrated country. It also led to the emergence of a new type of people called as “gurbetçi” (immigrant), to the development of multicultural social structure in the migrated country along with the wave of a new kind of multi culturalism. Besides it resulted in problems such as adaptation problems, the rise in illegal workers and asylum demands, traumatic cultural problems and broken families. One of the most significant features of Turkish worker migration to the West is that the first people migrated mostly by themselves. Going to the migrated country alone also caused a different family problem. Workers migrants first needed temporary immigration due to economic problems in their homeland. This migration was not a pattern of displacement with the family, but rather an individual and sex-based male predominantly an immigration pattern. However, some immigrants were able to bring their family to the country of immigration in the course of time, mainly by the possibilities, loneliness and the possibility of getting used to the living and economic conditions there. Some of them either did not or could not take the family abroad for different reasons (such as visa problems, the idea that the family could not adapt abroad, the desire to work back for a short time, and the need of parents in the country).Thus, with the migration abroad, a family problem arose where immigrants who did not take all or part of their family abroad or could not take it abroad. It is also possible to consider this as a "remnant of immigration" with a conceptualization. With regard to the people behind the immigration, there have been a number of broken family members in Turkey. Broken family is “the absence of one or both members in the family due to the reasons of death, abandonment, divorce and separation” (Saran, 1991: 132). The fact that one of the members of the family is away from home due to reasons such as working, wanting to live separately also points to the broken family. The best example of this is the families of people who have gone to work in other cities within the country or abroad for a long period of time, and have been away from the family. Of course, the most affected people in the broken families are the spouse, children or the person who has to leave. First of all, the spouse, who is left behind, may have to confront very different problems. The partner in longing can be in a constant loneliness. It can be a burden on spouse who has to deal with the children in the country, perhaps, and the mother and father in the country. The spouse (mostly the women) who takes the role of both mother and father for children may have to deal with all their problems alone. With nearly all of the house management, they may have to confront all the financial and moral matters. Particularly, the ones in the rural settlements can carry the burden of taking care of the peasants and animals on their shoulders. Also, some men who have bad intentions can look badly or even disturb the women left behind. Along with these, the relatives or other close friends of wives may intervene in their life because their husband is away. Faced with all these problems and more, the wife can feel the whole burden of the broken family on their shoulders. The wife, who deals with psychological, economic and social problems, may have to withstand all these alone. An important problem that has arisen with regard to those who are left behind after immigration is the children living in the country. They may be the mostly affected ones in the family psychologically. The fathers who live abroad may have problems in meeting the needs of their children such as education, spending time together and so on. The fathers who support their children financially may be inefficient psychologically. They mostly become a guest who support the family financially and visit home a few weeks in a year, which undermines the father authority on children. Thus children may develop a different point of view and low respect for their father. According to a study conducted in the United States, "the proportion of juvenile criminals in broken families has reached a significant percentage (Saran, 1991: 133). Of course, it is wrong to show broken families on juvenile delinquency alone as the main variable, but the data is very important in terms of showing the situation of broken families in juvenile delinquency. Children who are unable to meet their family, social and psychological needs and who lack family authority tend to be criminals. Especially children and young people can show tendency to crimes such as the acquisition of bad habits like alcohol and substance use, theft, extortion, harassment. This is one of the most negative consequences of a broken family. With all of this, the lack of the father can cause the children to take more responsibility for the family. Mostly, older children may assume the role of a father. Sometimes children can run for the material needs of the house. This can cause children to undergo a burden that they may be forced to lift and take great responsibilities. Another family member who is negatively affected after the migration is the mother and father of the migrant. Particularly in the case of migration, which takes place mostly from rural areas abroad, older parents may need care. Spouses and children who are not taken abroad sometimes undertake this care. This is another area of responsibility for the other members of the family. In the migrations that occur with the family, old parents are entrusted to other relatives or nursing homes. The worker immigration event that has taken place since 1960s abroad from Turkey has led to very different results. One of these problems is a broken family. This study aimed to analyze the broken family phenomenon that emerged with migration through the movie "Return" which was filmed years ago. Broken families have been an important event since old times. Life practices and sufferings of broken families differ from regular families. Especially the spouse, children and parents in the country are adversely affected by this phenomenon. This film is one of the rare works that focus on this subject. Despite the fact that it was taken many years ago, it is very important in terms of reflecting the problems of the day, social networks, cultural conditions, economic conditions and being a mirror to this day. The film, which gives the same taste every time, presents a light, a consciousness within today's conditions to be a broken family that still maintains its validity today. We have observed that similar problems still exist in today's conditions. If given as an example, according to the information given by a high school principal in Konya / Kulu, about 30% of school children are adversely affected by the broken family that emerged with migration. It is said that children are highly influenced by negative circumstances such as longing, loneliness, deprivation of interest from parents, heavy burden of house management, and being addicted to bad habits easily. Along with all of these, the wife and the child who were left behind were mentioned. However, it should be added that the migrants cannot always live a comfortable life like in the movie “Return”. Migrants can also experience negative effects of being separated from the family. Especially migrants are also faced with many problems such as single living, loneliness, longing, neglecting children and spouse, dealing with parents, weakening ties, economic obligations of both the family and his own. It seems important to be aware of the broken families, to raise awareness. Such works of art are also of great importance in terms of shedding light on society. Works of art, as well as scientific studies, campaigns, public spots, and the work of the Ministry of Family and Social Policy are very important to detect and lessen the adverse effects of the broken family.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)