KAMUSAL ALANDA SANAT OLGUSU VE GÖRSEL KÜLTÜR
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Kamusal alanlar genel ifadeyle, "toplum bireylerinin ortak kullanım alanlarıdır". Dolayısıyla bu alanlar toplumun ortak paylaşım ve etkileşim mekânlarıdır. 1950 sonrası değişen sanatın anlamsal ve biçimsel yapısı galeri ve sergi salonlarının dışına taşarak kamusal alanlara yönelmiştir. Kamusal alanlar, sanatçıların eserlerini biçimlendirerek topluma sunduğu alanlar haline gelmiştir. Toplum ve toplumun kullanım alanlarının sanat ile bütünleştiği mekânlar, toplumun fotoğrafını, sosyokültürel yapısının kimliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Kamusal alanlar günümüzde, geçmiş dönemlerin sergi salonu ve galeri mekânlarının fonksiyonunu yüklenerek 'sanatın ve sanat eserinin topluma sunulduğu (teşhir edildiği) alanlara dönüşmüştür'. Kamusal alanlar sanat eserlerinin birçok kişiyle etkileşime girmesine olanak tanır. Dolayısıyla sanatın 'üreticisi' olan sanatçı ile 'tüketicisi' olan toplum arasında yoğun bir ilişki söz konusudur. Kamusal alanlar, yıllardır toplumdan uzaklaştırılarak elit tabakanın etkileşim alanında yer alan 'sanat olgusunu' güncel sanat pratikleriyle asıl sahibine yani halkın ayağına getirmiştir. Kamusal alanlarda icra edilen sanatların tümünü 'kamusal sanat' kavramıyla ifade edebiliriz. Özellikle 1950'lerden sonra kamusal sanat envanterine birçok sanat anlayışı dâhil edilmiştir. Geleneksel sanatta 'sanat eseri karşısında 'pasif' konumda olan toplum bireyleri kamusal alanlarda sanat ile etkileşime girerek 'aktif' konuma geçerler. Toplum yaşantısının yoğun olduğu alanlara sanat taşınmalıdır. Sanat bulunduğu ortamı güzelleştirerek o ortama estetik değer kazandırır. Toplum, sanatın temas ettiği bu alanlara karşı farklı bakış açıları geliştirerek 'kültür belleği' oluşturur. Caddeler, sokaklar ve meydanlar bir kenti oluşturan önemli alanlardır. Bu alanların sanata kucak açması, sanat toplum bütünleşmesine zemin hazırlar. Geçmişten günümüze toplum sanat ilişkisine bakıldığında, toplumun büyük çoğunluğunun sanata mesafeli olduğu görülmektedir. Bu durumun en önemli nedeni olarak, sanatın belli bir tabakanın tekelinde olduğu anlayışının topluma empoze edilmeye çalışılmasıdır. Kamusal alanlardaki sanat çalışmaları ile sanatçı, sanat ve toplum arasındaki bağ güçlenerek toplumun çevresine bakışı estetik düzeye çekilir. Sanatın, toplumun sürekli kullanım alanı olan kamusal alanlarda varlığını göstermesi, bireylerin bu mekânlara bakış açılarını değiştirir. Bir bakıma sanat, görünmeyeni görünür hale getirir ve fark edilmeyenin fark edilmesini sağlar. Bireyler bu çıkarımları yaparken görsel kültür'ün sağlamış olduğu veri tabanından beslenir. Kamusal sanat, toplumun yaşadığı çevrenin farkına varmasını ve 'kent kültürü' bilinci edinmesini sağlar. Kamusal sanat çalışmaları, kalıcı estetik kentsel dokuların oluşturulmasında, toplumun yaşadığı çevreye karşı olan duyarlılığının arttırılmasında, bireylerin yaşantılarını ve aralarındaki ilişkiyi geliştirmelerinde önemli yer teşkil eder. Kamusal sanat, toplumun yaşantılarla edindiği maddi ve manevi kültürel motivasyonların odak noktasına sanat olgusunu yerleştirmeyi amaç edinir. Sanatın kamusal alanlarda uygulanması ve kalıcılığının sürdürülmesi toplumun 'görsel kültür' düzeyine bağlıdır. Bir toplumun görsel kültür düzeyinin gelişiminde, birçok görselliği bünyesinde barındıran sanat etkinlikleri büyük önem taşır. Araştırmada, kamusal sanat uygulamalarının toplumun görsel kültür belleğine olan katkısı ile kamusal alanlardaki sanat etkinliklerinin toplum üzerindeki etkileri saptanmaya çalışılmıştır. Elde edilen bilgi ve belgeler ışığında sonuç ve öneriler geliştirilmiştir. Araştırmada, verilerin toplanma sürecinde tarama yöntemi kullanılmıştırPublic spaces are, in general terms, "common use areas of community individuals". So, these areas are the common areas of community for sharing and interaction purposes. The semantic and formal structure of art that has changed after 1950 has shifted out of the galleries and exhibition halls and spread to public spaces. Public spaces have become exhibition areas for artists to form their artworks and present them to the local eyes. The places in which society and common spaces have become one with art reveals the socio-cultural structure and identity of the society. Today, public spaces are transformed into 'spaces where art and art work are presented (exhibited) by taking over the functions of exhibition rooms and gallery spaces of past periods. 'Art phenomenon' has been removed from the society and kept for the elite class. Public spaces have brought this 'art phenomenon' back to the community with contemporary art practices. We can express the whole of the arts performed in public spaces with the concept of 'public art'. Especially after the 1950s, many artistic insights were included in the public arts inventory. In the traditional art, people who are in a 'passive' position with respect to 'art', interact with art in public spaces and become 'active'. Art should be moved to areas where community life is intense. Art makes it aesthetically worthy by making the environment it is beautiful. Society creates 'cultural memory' by developing different perspectives against these areas where art touches. Roads, streets and squares are important areas that make up a city. The embracing of these fields in artificiality paves the way for the integration of art and society. When we look at relationship between art and society in the past, it is seen that the vast majority of the society is distant from art. One of the most important reasons for this is the try to imitate the understanding that art is monopolized by a particular class. Artwork in public spaces strengthens the connection between artist, art and society and enhances the view of society to the aesthetic level. The fact that art shows its presence in public spaces, which are the area of continuous use of society, changes the way individuals view these spaces. Art, in a way, allows to see what is invisible, and allows to notice what is unrecognized. Individuals are fed from the data base that they have provided visual culture while doing these inferences. Public art is to ensure that the society is aware of the environment in which it lives and that it acquires the consciousness of 'urban culture'. Public artwork plays an important role in the creation of permanent aesthetic urban textures, in increasing the susceptibility of the society to the living environment, and in the development of the relations between the individuals and their experiences. Public art aims to put an artistic point at the focal point of the material and spiritual cultural motivations that the society brings to life. The practice of art in public spaces and the maintenance of its permanence depend on the level of 'visual culture' of the society. In the development of the level of visual culture of a society, art activities that have many visuals in it are very important. In the research, the contribution of public art practices to society's memory of visual culture and the effects of artistic activities in the public sphere on society has been tried to be determined. Conclusions and recommendations have been developed in the light of the obtained information and documents. In the study, the screening method was used in the collection process of the data “By ‘Public Space’ concept primarily we mean that there is a space, an area, in which a public opinion alike exists within our community. It is ensured that every single citizen has access to this mentioned space” (Habermas, 2015a: 95). “The connection between the identity and the place lies behind the space primarily being a phenomenon as if crop field and a residential district that is formed in the hands locals” (Erzen, 2015: 161). The public spaces of a town are no different than a photograph of the whole town. They reflect the town itself. The approach of the community towards the public spaces is slightly different than towards any other thing. Public spaces are the identity of the town in the people’s eyes. This aspect of public spaces has opened its arms for artistic motivations. The organizations that has brought art and the society together will enhance the cultural level of every single person. According to Bardard, anything an eye can see must be categorized as visual culture. “‘Thing an eye can see’ cannot be defined without conceiving questions such as ‘How such concept as nature’s interpreted?” (Barnard, 2010: 27-28). “A person crosses with visual culture in not a single day of his life, but in each day. In visual culture notion, sense, and pleasure are about the visual happenings transmitted by visual technologies that are sought by consumers” (Mirzoeff, 1999: 3). “In a culture in which there are visuals, we live in a society of demonstration of symbols and images. We are surrounded by images, and we have plenty of theories about them” (Mitchell, 1994: 5-6). Eyesight is one of the most important organs mankind possess. This organ is used for both explanation and examination as if it’s a device made for that purpose (Leppert, 2009: 37). Visual culture is a reflex against visual revolution or hegemony in modern culture. Visual culture is based on visual media and a domination of speech, writing, textuality and visual expression on the oral activities of reading. Often, hearing and touching is probably a booty in the age of visualization (Mitchell, 2002: 172). Cultural textures that enter the visual culture cluster are "... fluidity, new formations; It contains the forms of resistance "(Akay, 2002: 60). "Visual culture has been seen in recent years as a hybrid initiative that unifies the data obtained through the various theories and methods that investigate the relationship between the individual, society and images in common. Visual culture is the exploration and definition of ways of expressing visuals beyond traditional disciplines "(Aykut, 2013: 708). Leppert refers to the fact that visual and literary images are now around us. "These images tell us what kind of bodies we should have and what kind of bodies we should desire - or construct - (...)" - the power of the society to shape the society of visual and literary imagery, (...) they tell us what kind of clothes we will wear, which car we will go to, which party we will vote for, and so on ". Leppert emphasizes that the information the mass media use when it comes to collecting visual images are not "prejudiced or neutral ..." as the information that the advertising industry brings out is that the main purpose of the advertisement is to make "... things that we cannot actually do ..." (Leppert, 2009: 15-16). If we proceed from this explanation, we can see that the discussions on the point that everything expressed as visuality cannot be evaluated within the scope of visual culture continues. The characteristic of your image is whether it is produced consciously by the person, whether there is a purpose of the produced visual, etc. Points define the limits of definitions made for visual culture. If the relationship between visual culture and art will be touched upon; we need to consider the fact that art is a 'language'. It can be said that the interaction of visual culture and art has begun with the people of the first age who do not show language development and express communication with each other on the walls of the cave. The entire visual perceived by the eye is the element of the visual culture cluster. Art undertakes a 'language' task of communicating between the sender (artist) and the receiver (viewer / society), which contains many visual indicators. When it is thought that art is such an important mission, it is very important to remove obstacles between society and art. In this direction, the artists have succeeded in bringing art to the community with artistic activities they have done in the public arena. With public venue art events, the level of visual culture of the community increases. "The whole of the city is perceived as an aesthetic area with physical atmospheric, sensory elements and inanimate people. Seeing the city as an aesthetic area means being aware of the city's multi-faceted sensory and perceptual qualities. Otherwise, the city will create thousands of new problems that we cannot avoid from a single point of view and that we can not overcome a problem that day. The city is a public aesthetic field. This means that the city is an artistic whole that appeals to the visual, auditory, kinetic, tactile senses (…). As the city includes all the arts, the urban environment is also a holistic aesthetic environment appealing to all senses "(Erzen, 2015: 139). The first thing that comes to mind when the concept of 'Public Alanda Art' is introduced is 'sculptures'. Especially after the declaration of the Republic, city plans were made and the streets and squares in the center of the cities were equipped with monument sculptures. On this page "the construction of a new nation was shaped in terms of spatial and semantic. The works of art were in a position where people could only watch from a distance, with public space being on the scene ". Art is a phenomenon that unifies societies. Public spaces are spaces that have been collected. For this reason, cooperation between the artist and the community should be established by taking the views of the society in the process of producing the works of art that are thought to be done in public spaces. This can be achieved by ensuring that artworks made in public spaces are adopted and protected by society. "From the point of view of urban planning, the decision-making role of the administrations in the selection, ordering and placement of permanent artworks, sometimes in the form of urban furniture, still takes place in open public spaces" (Aksel, 2013: 19). "The concept of public artwork traditionally requires that an artwork is simply placed in a public space. The artifacts placed in this way are expected to differ from the artifacts in the private area, namely the artifacts that are bought and sold among the galleries. Public art projects necessitate a different audience and a different kind of spectatorship concept. "(Sheikh, 2007: 23). “It is important for the individual to be in the arts in social life spaces in terms of both mental health and adaptation to cultural ripeness and changes. Museums and art galleries are not enough to meet the art needs of a man who has to live in a fast-paced contemporary life. One of the most important methods that can be applied to the benefit of a wider audience is to take the art out of museums and art galleries, and move to streets and squares, and into everyday life" (Öztürk, 2007: 46). "The purpose of installations and landscaping in the 1960s and 70s was to reconstruct the social context of artistic work. Artworks covering the whole of the place and integrating the visitor can not be judged in the classical art movements because they use a variety of techniques "(Saehrendt and Kittl, 2014: 42). The works of art which are revealed by traditional art understanding can be easily perceived by the audience as content and form. However, it is much more difficult to perceive the forms of abstract meaning, such as performance, contemporary forms, land art, or installation by the audience. The most important reason for this is that contemporary art forms are not familiar to the audience (Whitham and Pooke, 2013: 1, Akt, Susuz, 2017: 101). Therefore, the visual imagery used in the artistic forms that the society is not familiar with, broadens the inventory of the visual culture of the society, thus laying the foundation for the formation of the 'visual culture' memory. "The transfer of art to urban areas will both contribute to the environment and make people more sensitive to their surroundings. Existing living environments do not fully meet people's needs, but the created mechanical environment makes the individual sick, and overwhelmed. For this reason, it is necessary to take art to children's playgrounds, parks, streets, buildings, in short, places where daily life is. It has been the age of art to live art in art, not in people, in places that are difficult to perceive and troublesome to go around"(Öztürk, 2007: 46). Conclusion Permanent art activities in public spaces are usually coordinated by the local administrators of those regions. This situation is contrary to the nature of art. The art, which is a reflection of emotion and thought, has become a structure that is shaped as per order. "The future of art is not artistic but urban, meaning that art is moved from galleries and enclosed areas to open spaces, developing in urban areas and addressing everyone. Apart from some European cities, in many cities today, public spaces have not been able to become the domain of the people as a whole through public and art "(Erzen, 2015: 140). The public sphere and artistic components, especially after the 1950s, have emerged in the West with different artistic trends. By the end of modern art, the idea that art cannot be offered to the audience only in exhibition halls and gallery-like places has begun to be expressed. The artwork-space components have been presented as complementary phenomena with many art activities. "Art, which defines an identity in the creation of contemporary cities, needs to be removed from sheltered and enclosed spaces and be accessible for the urban individual. Artistic works will define the identity of the city as long as it integrates with the city, is naturalized in the urban spaces and takes its place. The city will form its memory. In this context, it is necessary to look at the city as an art creation and to handle this art product with architecture, streets, monuments, city furniture, in short all the textures” (Öztürk, 2007: 171). "Visuality occupies a large part of people's daily lives in public and private spaces. Thus, visual images, experiences related to sight and sight satisfy the public and private spheres. These images affect how children, adolescents, and teachers learn, perform, or change their identities, values, and behavior" (Pauly, 2003: 264; Akt. Sengir, 2014: between 62-63). Some values must be considered to ensure the permanence of public art. At the beginning of these values are sociocultural factors. Cultural motivations have great prospects in ensuring the long-lasting durability of an artwork made publicly available. We can talk about the existence of long-term artistic forms that are shaped by consensus, based on the opinions of society. The art made in the public space must exhibit a characteristic structure by nourishing the values of society. Proposal In the process of integration of public spaces which services to visional culture with works of art, local administrators have great responsibility. The works of art performed in public spaces form a whole with society. Therefore, when such an important process is carried out, it is necessary for the local administrations to benefit from the academic manpower. At this point, artistic activities can be carried out in public spaces in cooperation with Faculty of Fine Arts and Faculty of Architecture. The view of community to the life and the environment changes by the art applications that provided by visional culture in public area. With public art practices, society's perspective on life and the environment changes. The society that is integrated in art, spreads the aesthetic essence in every single part their life. When today's children are thought to be managers or administrators of tomorrow, the perception of the community on aesthetic can be improved by incorporating components such as 'urban, arts, aesthetic and culture' into their curriculum. The state should support public art practices what makes visional culture exist and developes it, by observing and practicing art policies. Particularly, the artists must be encouraged to participate in such and similar organizations and to contribute visional culture. For many years, our country has been faced with the growing 'crooked urbanization' and the situation of being thrown out of the architecture of artistic aesthetic items. This fact impacts visional culture in adverse way. In recent years, many cities have organized congresses, symposiums and biennial-like organizations on the theme of "Urban Aesthetics" with the cooperation of municipal and universities. It may be emphasized that such organizations should be enforced in the future to encompass larger community members. It is very important to have the culture and art consciousness to a society to exist and to transmit its existence to future generations. The occurrence of visional culture has very important place in this structure. There are problems in our country both in the education system and in the social life in terms of acquiring culture and arts consciousness. At this point, planned organizations can be made to bring culture and art consciousness to society by taking advantage of the potential of public spaces to bring together the community individuals.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)