TÜRKİYE’DE FARKLI DÖNEMLERE AİT KELİME SIKLIĞI ÇALIŞMALARI ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME
Kelime sıklığı çalışmaları bir dil için önemli çalışmalardır. Bu çalışmalar, dildeki söz varlığının ortaya konulmasına yardımcı olduğu gibi eğitim, psikoloji, dil bilimi vs. birçok alanda kullanılabilecek veriler de sunmaktadır. Mesela bir yabancı dili öğrenmeye çalışanlara başlangıçta hangi kelimelerin öğretilmesi gerektiği hakkında bilgiler verir ya da bir sözlük hazırlanırken kelimelerin anlamlandırılmasında hangi anlamların daha fazla kullanıldığını ortaya koyar. Bizim kelime sıklığı çalışmamızdan önce bu konuyla ilgili Türkiye'de biri 1945-1950 arasını kapsayan diğeri de 1995-2000 yıllarına ait iki önemli çalışma yapılmıştır. Kelime sıklığı gibi önemli bir konuda sadece iki çalışmanın bulunması büyük bir eksiklik idi. 1975-1980 yılları Türk siyasi tarihi için önemli bir dönemdir. Bu dönemde farklı fikirlere sahip gruplar arasında ideolojiye bağlı olarak çatışmalar yaşanmıştır. Bundan dolayı o dönemde kullanılan kelimelerin tespit edilmesi önemliydi. Farklı ideolojileri temsil eden siyasi gazetelerden hareketle dönemin kelime sıklığı sözlüğü oluşturulmaya çalışıldı. Zira bir dilin sözvarlığının belirli bir zaman içindeki durumunu en iyi yansıtan o dönemdeki gazete haberlerinin dilidir. Gazeteler belli bir ideolojiye hizmet etseler bile dilin sözvarlığını ortaya koymada çok az ayrım göstermektedirler. 1975-1980 döneminin sıklık sözlüğü için oluşturulan kelime havuzunda özel isimler çıkarıldıktan sonra toplamda 549.366 sözcük yer aldı. Her ne kadar seçilen materyaller bakımından birtakım farklar olsa dabu makalede bizim çalışmamızdan önce yapılan en kapsamlı iki kelime sıklığı çalışmasıyla bizim çalışmamız çeşitli yönleriyle karşılaştırılmış, çalışmalardaki benzerlikler ve farklılıklar elde edilen verilere bağlı olarak açıklanmaya çalışılmıştırWord frequency studies are important for a language study. These studies, training as well as help to reveal the vocabulary in the language, psychology, linguistics, etc. also it provides data that can be used in many fields. For example, learning a foreign language is initially provide information to employees about what should be taught in a dictionary meaning of the word or preparation which reveals the meaning of the word used more. One word frequency in Turkey before our work on this issue covering the period of 1945-1950 there were two other important works belonging to the 1995-2000 year. As comprehensive an important issue as the frequency of the words of the only two studies was a major shortcoming. The most important activities related to the word frequency in Turkey and made İlyas Göz and Gökhan Ölker. Word frequency of 1995-2000, dictionary in revealing the eye of the word pool selected from a different category 975.141 words, word frequency of the 1945-1950 year dictionary in revealing Ölker the word pool is selected again from different categories took place 929.015 words. 1975-1980 years are an important period for the Turkish political history. During this period there have been conflicts between the two groups, depending on the ideology with different ideas. Therefore, it was important to identify the words used in the period. Word frequency of the movement period of political newspapers that represent different ideologies dictionary has been trying to establish. Because the language of the case within a certain time of the vocabulary that best reflects the language of newspaper reports at the time. Newspapers serve a certain ideology if they reveal the language's vocabulary even if they show little distinction. After the 1975-1980 period established names in the pool for the frequency dictionary of words it took place issued a total of 549.366 words. Although the chosen materials in terms of some differences though this article is the most comprehensive two words often work done before our study (1945-1950 and 1995-2000), our study compared various aspects of the similarities and differences in the study were explained, depending on the data obtained. 3 Looking at the work of the 13 most widely used 20 words are used in common. The number of partners in the first 50 words in 3 studies is 31 words. Language is a natural presence and functionality will vary depending on the living is continuous and develops. The main reason for the differences in these studies is the fact. However, the formation of differences, of course there are other reasons. Time, discussed materials, the materials issues, thoughts and feelings of the people using the words, worldview, etc. These differences may be caused by many reasons. For example, in our study, the first of 50 "ülke, hükûmet, devlet, konu, karşı, dünya and yol" in the words take the place of the first 50 in other studies is probably related to the materials selected. Our core of our work, depending on the issues discussed in the political newspaper created for political newspapers "ülke, hükûmet, devlet" the frequent use of the word is quite natural. Different ideas, situations, events and issue discussed in the newspapers that the "konu" it is normal to use a lot of words. Continuous opposite discussed the views and political newspapers in which the various comparisons "karşı" frequently take place in the word, not only about Turkey, earth, depending on the make of the news about other countries, "dünya" soon the word and help for the solution of various problems, the introduction of methods and suggestion Because of "yol" to use the word much is natural. Just those words, depending on the different topics covered in each newspaper has been used dozens of times. This situation can be said for the Göz and Ölker studies. Although the material is selected topics in materials of different categories in these two studies revealed the material world opinion, the words used could have resulted in different proportions. The following ratio to all the words of figure 1 per word shown in the chart. Figure 1 ratio to all the words of such material is only 3.77% from the beginning of the word suggests. This situation obviously does not stem from a rich language Turkish absence. Turkish is one of the world's oldest languages for reaching such a conclusion would be Turkish injustice. For us, there is one more important reason for this situation is that the Turkish vocabulary. As is known, vocabulary, not just the words of a language; statements, stereotypical words, proverbs, and the whole formed by the expression patterns of various terms are expressed. Idioms, proverbs and stereotyped expressions of the widely used Turkish keep in mind that we can meet the natural substance per word rate so few go to. For example, "hit the stone ax" means the "ax", "stone" and "hit" the words used beyond their meaning, it implies that an unexpected difficulties encountered. However, word frequency dictionary of these words have been counted in creating their own meanings, shown in a different article. Already this is not possible. Such words were frequently in the text plays an important role in the reduction of the number of words per article for us by now. The following chart 2; top 50, top 100, in proportion to the first 500 and the first 1000 words all the words are given. Often the sum of the first 50 words in the dictionary 135.744't place. Their rate was 24.7% for all words. The ratio of all the words of the first 50 words in Ölker work is 27%. In the Göz of all the words to the first 50 words work rate is 24.8%. Graph 3. The most interesting result is the ratio of 100 and above on the frequency of words. In our study, this ratio was 68%, 75% work in Ölker, while the Göz of the working 76,25%. Other than the ratio between the frequency of words and over 100 despite being close to each other is important difference between 7-8% of our work with our other two studies. We think the reasons for this difference is the total number of words that are included in the pool. Because of our work with our other studies, there are about 400,000 words a difference. Although our work if we had an additional 400,000 words and would probably increase the number of over 100 words and work with other intermediate 7-8% rate would also be reduced. Chart 4 shows the distribution by type is shown in the first 100 words. Accordingly, the number of the first 100 words 179.565't our study. This meets a rate of 32,68'lik% of all the words. 65 is composed of the names of the first 100 words. This total is 97,397 names. The rate in the first 100 words 54,24't%. 20 The first 100 words are verbs. The sum of the verb is 35,121. The ratio of these acts is 19.56% of the first 100 words. The first 100 words of the word consists of 15 officers. The number of the first 100 words of officials is 47 047 words. The ratio of the first 100 words Officials of words is 26.20%. The distribution of species in the first 100 words of Ölker study are as follows: 53% of names, verbs 24%, 23% official words. The distribution of species in the Göz of the first 100 words of the study are as follows: 54% of names, verbs 25%, 21% official words. The distribution according to the origin of the first 50 words in Figure 8 were evaluated. In all three studies point here is the remarkable 41 of the first 50 words of the Turkish occur. CONCLUSION: Religious beliefs with a community's way of life, the extent to which it has established relations with nations, nor given values, even the tendency to wit always revealed by examining the vocabulary. Each language-speaking community; environment, the surrounding events, facts and recounts his own perceived the concepts formed in the mother tongue, in short, the world sees the Pencereci of their language. The language passed down from generation to generation, that the society's members are thinking in terms of conditioning. People's worldviews, values, lifestyles, beliefs manifest themselves in the language they use. Between 1975-1980 is an important period in terms of Turkish political history. In this period of conflict seen between different sections of society, every day events are also reflected in the words used by the people in the community unrest. Different ideologies may use different words when expressing a concept. Thus it was supposed to reveal the frequency language words used in this period. The data obtained were explained by various statements made on this issue before and two comprehensive studies (Göz and Ölker) with a comparison is made between our study. This third study compared with 3 different periods (1945-1950, 1975-1980 and 1995-2000) it has revealed differences and similarities between the words often used by the community. While the overall study results in some differences in usage can say that close.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)