CUMHURİYET DÖNEMİNDE SÜLEYMAN ŞAH TÜRBESİ’NİN KORUNMASI
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Milli Mücadele sürecindeki askeri ve siyasi başarılar sonucunda Ankara Antlaşması ile elde edilen, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'ne bir ecdad mirası olarak devredilen, yeni Türk devletinin kendi sınırları dışındaki tek vatan toprağı olan Süleyman Şah Türbesi ve onun etrafındaki bir kısım arazinin korunması meselesi Türkiye Cumhuriyet'nin bir devlet politikası olarak günümüze değin sürdürülmüştür. Cumhuriyet döneminde türbenin bakımı, onarımı ve güvenliğinin sağlanması konularında zaman zaman çeşitli aksaklıkların yaşandığı gözlenmiştir. Diğer taraftan bir Türk eksklavı olan bu vatan toprağının belirli dönemlerde özellikle Suriye tarafından kaynaklanan sorunlar çerçevesinde çeşitli risklerle karşı karşıya kaldığı bir gerçektir. Suriye'nin önce Tabka, sonra da Teşrin Barajı'nı türbeyi tehdit edecek şekilde inşa etmesi üzerine Türk Hükümeti ile Suriye yönetimi karşı karşıya gelmiştir. Bu sorunlar uluslararası hukuk çerçevesinde ilkinde taşıma yöntemi ile ikincisinde ise tahkimat projesinin uygulanmasıyla çözümlenebilmiştir. 2011'de Suriye'deki iç savaşın başlamasından sonra ise Karakozak'ta bulunan Süleyman Şah Türbesi ve Saygı Karakolu bölgedeki terör gruplarının saldırılarına ve tehditlerine açık hale gelmiştir. Türk Hükümeti buna bir önlem olmak bakımından Şah Fırat Operasyonu'na karar vermiş ve Süleyman Şah Türbesi ile Saygı Karakolu Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri'nin gerçekleştirdiği hareketle 2015'te Türkiye sınırına bitişik Suriye Eşmesi'ne taşınmıştır. Bu askeri hareket Türkiye'de muhalefetin ve çeşitli siyasi çevrelerin tepkisine ve eleştirisine yol açmıştırThe protection issue of Suleiman Shah Tomb and some of its surrounding land which is the only piece of land outside its boundaries of Turkish Republic has continued until today as a state policy of Turkey's Republic. At the same time this land and tomb was obtained with the Ankara Agreement and as a result of military and political successes in the process of national struggle and it has been transferred as a heritage to the Republic of Turkey. From time to time tomb's maintenance, repair and providing security issues has been observed various troubles during the Republican era. It is a fact that this homeland soil which is a Turkish eksklav was faced with various risks by problems caused by the particularly Syria in certain periods. Syrian government was confronted with the Turkish Government due to built firstly Tabka and then Teşrin Dam which would threaten the tomb by Syria. These problems resolved under international law with the implementation of method of transport and the implementation of the project fortifications. In 2011, after the start of the civil war in Syria, Tomb of Suleyman Shah and Respect Police Station in Karakozak has become vulnerable against of attacks and threats by terrorist groups in the region. The Turkish Government has decided the Shah Euphrates Operation to take measures to this events and the Tomb of Suleyman Shah and Respect Police Station was moved to Syrian's Eşme which is the adjacent border of Turkey by Turkish Armed Forces carried out a military operation in 2015. This military action has led to criticisms and reactions of the opposition and various political environment in TurkeySTRUCTURED ABSTRACT The Tomb of Suleyman Shah, Respect Station and land around these structures which is the firstly 8797 square meters and then approximately 10,000 square meters are the only piece of land outside its boundaries of Turkish Republic. According to international law, this piece of land should be considered as an Turkey's eksklave within Syria's boundry. The tomb of Suleyman Shah was mentioned a Turkish tomb for centuries and in accordance with Article 9 of Ankara Agreement which made with the French on the process of National Struggle has been accepted as a land of the new Turkish goverment. Firstly including the Treaty of Lausanne, this situation has maintained its legitimacy in the framework of bilateral agreements concluded between France and the Syrian Arab Republic and Turkey. Issue of Suleyman Shah Tomb's maintenance, repair and protection during the Republican era has been evaluated in a state policy axis. However, from time to time It was observed that the physical conditions of the tomb of Suleyman Shah and the point of supply of needs of soldiers who guard the tomb have been experiencing a variety of problems. In 1926, the Tomb of Suleyman Shah has also been linked to the Ministry of Education with Law the Number of 677 of Tekke, lodges and shrines issued in 1925. This under the law, Turbedar's fees received from the state for jobs related cleaning of tomb, maintenance and e.t.c. have been cut. Even though Turbedar made various attempts to the Ministries of Interior and Education about this issue, he could not get a result from the correspondence between Ministry of Education, the General Directorate of Foundations and Religious Affairs. However, it was observed that protecting the tomb had been continued by the soldiers who were transfered from Urfa at the first week of each month in 1930s and 1940s. In the period of Prime Minister Şükrü Saraçoğlu(in 1943) was asked to appoint an antiquities expert staff and guard to the tomb of Suleyman Shah but some changes have been made to the organization because of the unsuitability of staff. As a result of the efforts in this period, the main specialist on staff was constituted and provided a guard for museums and employed a young twenty experts in the field of employment, adding miniature specialist staff and it was made to raise the salary currently staffed with officers. However, in this process also, Staff employment was not provided for the maintenance of the tomb of Suleyman Shah. It was understood from the memories of Refik Halit Karay who is a famous novel and story writer and Antalya deputy Hikmet Turan Dağlıoğlu's speech that was a statements in this regard in the Parliament in 1946 there was significant deficiency related to maintenance, repair and the physical conditions of the tomb in the 1930s and 1940s. The government has allocated a share as a precaution in the 1947 budget of the Ministry of Education and scope of allowance of The General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums to repair the tomb of Suleyman Shah. During this period, due to any repairs was not made, Tomb of Suleyman Shah was also included the other monument list in 1949 repaired as necessary in a hurry. In 1949, due to toward willingness to increase soldiers' salaries protecting the tomb of Suleyman Shah by The Ministry of Interior and decision of the Council of Ministers about ration allowance of a corporal, eight soldiers and a noncommissioned officer serving in the tomb station signed by President Ismet Inonu decided to be increased to 50 pounds. In 1950, it was decided to reopen to public including the Tomb of Suleyman Shah in the Urfa Ja'ber Castle and the tomb of the 19 great Turks in another document signed by President İsmet İnönü with regard to the article on the Ministry of Education. In the early years of the ruling Democratic Party, Konya deputy Saffet Gürol gave a briefing to Prime Minister Adnan Menderes at Parliament after visiting to Syria, Lebanon and Jordan and then Menderes was also asked from Gürol to submit a report on this subject and asked from him to be sent to the Prime Ministry. Gürol has prepared a detailed report related to some problems which were about needing maintenance and repair of Suleyman Shah Tomb, people who work as Türbedar uninformed about the tomb, soldiers had some hardships and what they need and then this report was handed over to the prime minister. For this report, Prime Minister gave the necessary instructions to the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and military representative has reported that tomb was in need of care, as a result of talks with the Turkish embassy of concerned the ministry in Damascus and military representative. In response of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent to the prime minister about this issue was stated that detections of Saffet Gürol located in the 13-items report of military representative and this issue was about the Ministry of Defense. According to Articles 13 and 14 of minutes signed at the high level meeting held in Aleppo between delegations of Syria and Turkey, honour troops to be sent to the tomb has been adopted replacing seven of every month. According to result of talks between the French mandate Syrian government with the Turkey and considering the terms of the 1921 Ankara Agreement, in 1939 it moved into its second location in front of Ja'ber Castle from the former location of the tomb of Suleyman Shah at Ja'ber Castle. However, in 1973, the Syrian government brought a certain point to Tabqa Dam construction which began in 1966 on the Euphrates River in the region and also mentioned the dam began to fill with water. Against this background, although there have been a temporary diplomatic crisis between the Syrian government and the Turkish side, finally, two sides have reached an agreement under international law and in 1975, tomb and station was transferred to the Karakozak village which is connected to the city of Aleppo and which are 10 km distance to the Akcakale on the eastern bank of the Euphrates and 30 km distance to Sanliurfa. Syria began to build a dam again on 90 km distance to east Aleppo and on the Euphrates. Construction of The Teşrin Dam which is height of 40 meters began in 1991 and was completed in 1999. As in the process of construction of Tabka Dam, again in the process of construction of Teşrin Dam Syria asked to be moved the tomb of Suleyman Shah which is a fully eksklave of Turkey under international treaty law from Karakozak region. In Parliament, Sivas deputy Mehmet Ceylan, has directed to a variety of questions to answer by Foreign Minister Ismail Cem. Mehmet Ceylan wanted an explanation about these questions, which how Teşrin Dam will affect the tomb and which measures has been taken by the government against it. In response to the questions of deputy Mehmet Ceylan, Foreign Minister Ismail Cem stated that the tomb of Suleyman Shah threatened by the waters of the Teşrin dam is being closely monitored by the ministry and provided coordination among related agencies. However, upon insistence on a new relocation of the tomb which determined by the Syrian government in Karakozak by Syrian authorities, a committee created to represent Turkey met to discuss the situation with Syrian officials in Aleppo In 1999. Turkish delegation has criticized the Syrian authorities did not foresee that the tomb would be damaged, due to rising of water of the dam. However, although the Turkish authorities had also demanded financial provide from Syria for damage that occured after, the Syrian authorities stated that such a situation could not be, due to this land and the tomb entirely belonging to Turkey. Parties came together again in 2000 in Aleppo and the Turkish side, departing from the thesis which tomb would remain in own place, explained the technical details of a designed fortification project to the Syrian authorities. Syrian authorities stated that they knew aware of the historical importance of the tomb and could be realized such a Project by Turks so as not to disrupt Syrian’s energy investments. Whereupon Turkish Government authorized the Ministry of Culture on this issue and as a result of meetings held in this regard, the Tomb of Suleyman Shah Fortification Project prepared with providing technical support to the State Water Works, Turkish and Syrian representatives came together in 22 January 2003 and then the Minutes of Fortification Project has signed. With this project, the tomb of Suleyman Shah and Respect station prevented from being affected by the rising waters of the dam and the tomb remained in Karakozak until 2015. Some conditions such as the increasing threat of an armed terrorist group in Karakozak region which located the tomb of Suleyman Shah has pushed the government of Turkey to take new measures. According to this, the tomb of Suleyman Shah was moved to the Eshme of Syria which is almost adjacent to the border of Turkey and expressed as a safer region, result of 'Shah Euphrates Operations' which started at 18:30 o'clock in the evening of February 21, 2015 and ended at 10:12 o'clock in the morning February 22, 2015 with assisted of land and air. This military and strategic action has led to a huge response of the opposition in Turkey. The main opposition and representatives in Turkey sharply criticized the government in a statement after the other. According to the opposition, this action is the tomb of Suleyman Shah left alone, abandonment of the homeland and a major failure.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)