Kemanın tarihsel gelişim süreci ve eğitimci yorumcular
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Solo ve orkestra müziğinde kullanılan ve geçmişten bugüne büyük bir değişim ve gelişim içerisinde günümüze ulaşan yaylı çalgıların en önemlilerinden biri de kemandır. Ortaya çıkışı bakımından kemanın bir Rönasans dönemi çalgısı olduğu düşünülse de müzik tarihi içindeki bütün dönemlerde kullanılmış, bu dönemler içinde yapısal, teknik ve edebiyatı açısından kendi değişim ve dönüşüm süreçlerini en üst düzeyde gerçekleştirmiştir. Keman müziği rönasans dönemde ‘oluşmaya’ başlamış, barok dönemde ‘kendine özgü bir nitelik’ kazanmaya başlamış, klasik dönemde ‘büyük ölçekli tür ve biçimlerine kavuşmuş’, romantik dönemde ‘duygusal anlatımın en yüksek en geniş sınırlarına dayanmış’, çağdaş dönemde ise ‘deneysel çalışmalarla yeni arayış evrelerinden geçerek’ günümüze ulaşmıştır (Uçan, 2005;130). Kemanın yapısal ve teknik gelişimleri devam ederken, keman edebiyatına katkı sağlayan besteciler yanında pek çok keman pedagogu da yetişmiş, hepsi aynı zamanda virtüöz olan öğrenciler yetiştirmişlerdir. O dönemde yayınladıkları metot kitapları ve eserleri günümüz keman eğitiminde de halen temel kaynaklar olarak kullanılan bu eğitimci yorumculardan bazıları şunlardır; Michel Pignolet de Monteclair, Francesco Geminiani (The Art of Playing on the Violin), Guiseppe Tartini, George Philippe Telemann (Eşliksiz Keman İçin 12 Fantezi), Paganini (24 Kapris), Ferdinand David, Charles Auguste de Beriot (Metode de Violin), Michel Corette (Mükemmel Keman Çalma Sanatı), Guiseppe Tartini, Giovanni Battista Viotti, Pierre Baillot (L’ Art du Violin), Pierre Rode (24 caprices), Louis Spohr, Rodolphe Kreutzer (42 Etudes), Jacques-Fereol Mazas (Etudes Spéciales, Etudes Brillantes ve Etudes d’Artistes), Federigo Fiorillo (36 Caprices for Violin), Leopold Auer, Jan Hanus Sitt (100 Studies/Etudes), Charles Dancla, Henry Schradieck (Schule der Violintechnik), Ivan Galamian (Princibles of Violin Playing and Teaching), Carl Flesch (The Art of Violin Playing). Bu,çalışmada; kemanın müzik dönemleri içerisindeki yapısal ve teknik gelişim süreci ile keman edebiyatına ve eğitimine önemli katkıları olan ünlü eğitimci yorumcular,,bunların yetiştirdikleri belli başlı öğrenciler ve basılı eğitim yayınlarını kısa bir öz halinde derlemek amaçlanmıştır.Bu amaçla, keman edebiyatının ve keman pedagojisinin günümüze kadar olan gelişiminin kısa bir değerlendirilmesi yapılarak, çalışmanın eğitimcilere ve öğrencilere kaynak olarak sunulması hedeflenmiştir.One of the most important strings progressing and changing immensely from past to present and used in solo and orchestra music nowadays is violin. Many primitive strings thought as the ancestors of violin have risen in different places of the world in ancient times. Some instruments invented especially in Renaissance Period (1450-1600) led to family of violin. Viol which has straight-back, big-stem, different sizes and rose in Italy in 16th century takes the lead of these instruments (Şekerkaran, 1996: 28). There were much more structural developments of violin in this period and many successful luthiers grew up and students grew up. Of these, Kaspar Tieffenbrucker (1514-1570) was the person who finalized violin to several music historians. Other main, famous luthiers and educators of the period: Gasparo da Salo, his student Giovanni Paola (1580-1632) and Andre Amati (1505-1577). Because Renaissance was the period of the transition from viol to violin, there were more viol methods and violin music was mostly transcribed from choir pieces of vocal music. Thanks to technical developments of violin, becoming the lead of players and educators in this field and developments about teaching methods accelerated in the following periods. In Baroque Period (1600-1750), violin took the place of family of viol. So violin became the most important solo instrument in this period by developing with regards to technique and structure. The concept &#8216;virtuosity&#8217; rose along with increasement of educators following solo pieces and common usage of violin. It occured exactly transition from modal system to tonal system in violin music. It occured forms like sonata, suite in this period and violin music provided so powerful and effective expression thanks to musical density on pieces. Although there were many developments for violin, there were not so many references writen for violin in Baroque Period. These are famous educators and players of this period: Vivaldi (1678-1741), Monteclair (1667-1737); Corette (1707-1795); Geminiani (1687-1762); Leopold Mozart (1719-1787); Tartini (1692-1770); Telemann (1681-1767). The most famous instrument luthiers are; Nicolo Amati (1596-1684), Antonio Stradivarius (1644-1737) ve Andrea Guarneri(1626-1698) In Classical Period (1750-1820), by including chinrest to violin, both the timbre of the violin changed and much more free left-hand technique developed. Repertoires became difficult in terms of technique. According to qualities of rhythm and sound, usage of instruments in orchestras led to increasement of virtuosity. Sonata allegro, sonata, concerto, chamber music, symphony, serenade, divertimento genres came into prominence. Convex violin bow in Classical Period took place of concave bow in Baroque Period and since the change also affected basic bow techniques, it allowed for occurrence of spiccato and soutille techniques besides detache, legato, martele and staccato techniques from Baroque Period. These are famous educators and players of this period: W.A. Mozart (1756-1791); Viotti (1755-1824); Baillot (1771-1842); Rode (1774-1830); Spohr (1784-1859); Kreutzer (1766-1831); Mazas (1782-1849); Fiorillo (1755-1853); even if there were not Beethoven (1770-1827)&#8217;s publications for violin just like Mozart, he was the most famous transition composer from Classical Period to Romantic Period. In Romantic Period (1820-1900), violin kept its last physical structure thanks to addition of chinrest and there was not any change. However, it was observed many changes and developments in terms of expression and technique in violin music. In this period, it was achieved much more virtuosity than other periods. It was passed to be intensified expressions thanks to constantly tone changes, rapid changes in dynamics and long-running melodies. There was Paganini&#8217;s huge effect on diversification of performance techniques. Within this context, changes of distant position, ricochet, left-hand pizzicato, double fingers trill, artificial and double flajole, passing between dual sounds can be counted as techniques like differential tuning violin. Besides sonata, concerto and chamber music genres, romance genre also became prominent. Apart from these, Sarate, Mendelssohn were the main composers of Romantic Period as well. These are famous educators and players of this period: Nicolo Paganini (1782-1840); Beriot (1802-1870); Ferdinand David (1810 - 1873); Joachim (1831-1907); Dancla (1817-1907); Wieniawski (1835-1880); Auer (1845-1930); Schradieck (1846-1918); Hans Sitt (1850-1922)&#8217;dir. Bunların dışında Sarasate (1844-1908), F. Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847), J. Brahms (1833-1897), M. Bruch (1838-1920), P. I. Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) Violin in Contemporary Period: Contemporary/modern Period when jangles were used together in music and atonal music became prominent became the period which resonance was superior to theme in violin pieces and rhythm was the most important element in musical expression. Pieces and etudes written for violin in the period was quite hard and mostly on the level of virtuosity because of used tones, dual sounds and technically difficult passages. Ivan Galamian (1903-1981). Some of his students; Itzhak Perlman, Pincas Zukermann, Chin Kimm&#8217;dir (Mumcu, 2004:8). Of Turkish violin virtuosos, Ayla Erduran is also one of Galamian&#8217;s students. Flesch (1873-1944); Students he brought up became world-renowned and great violin virtuosos.Some of these students; Ida Haendel, Alma Moodie, Henri Temianka, Ginette Neveu, Roma Totenberg. Carl Flesch&#8217;s methods and technique reached to the point which is regarded as scale in violin pedagogy. Main composers in Contemporary Period in violin music; C.Debussy (1862- 1982), L.Janacek (1854-1928), M.Ravel (1875-1928), A.Schönberg (1874-1951), C.Ives (1874-1954), B.Bartok (1881-1945), I.Stravinsky (1882-1971), A.Berg (1885-1935), S.Prokofiev (1891-1953), P. Hindemith (1895-1963). Modern Turkish Violin Music: as soon as polyphonic West music had been also adopted and performed in our country in the second quarter of 19th century, Modern Period in music began thanks to being approached and performed our own national elements through modern methods and techniques. It can be arranged in order common properties of Modern Turkish Violin Music: Generally, our traditional music has modern method and technique, dual sound, modal and tonal-based, inspiration and resource. It was affected by nationalism, impressionism, expressionism and neo-classicism in mostly the final years of Romantic Period and Modern Period. Morphological properties of Modern Turkish violin music; It has been written as song form, sonata, concerto, suite and rondo. Major composers, players and educators of Modern Turkish Violin Music: C.Reşit Rey (1904-1985), U.Cemal Erkin (1906-1972), H.Ferit Alnar (1906-1978), A. Adnan Saygun (1907-1991), N. Kazım Akses (1908-1999), Kemal İlerici (1910-1986), E. Zeki Ün (1910-1987), Bülent Tarcan (1914-1991), Necdet Remzi Atak (1911- 1972), İlhan Usmanbaş (1921-), Necdet Levent (1923-), Nurhan Cangal (1927-2005), Muammer Sun (1932-), Yalçın Tura (1934-), Ayla Erduran (1934- ), Suna Kan (1936- ), Tunç Ünver (1953-), Ömer Can (1934-),Cihat Aşkın (1968-). Consequently, violin music &#8216;emerged&#8217; during the renaissance period, had &#8216;a distinctive quality&#8217; in baroque period, &#8216;obtained large scale styles and forms&#8217; in classical period, &#8216;reached the top point of emotional expression&#8217; during the romantic period, and reached today by &#8216;passing through new phases of quests with experimental works&#8217; in contemporary period. In this study, it is essentially aimed to collect well-known violin players/pedagogues and printed educative publications within periods of music, which contribute to the structural and technical development process of violin and to the literature of violin to a great extent.
SourceSelçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi