Yunt Dağı ve çevresinin iklim özellikleri
MetadataShow full item record
Yunt Dağı ve çevresini oluşturan saha, Ege Bölgesi’nin Asıl Ege Bölümü’nde Bakırçay ve Gediz depresyonlarının arasında yer alır. Araştırma sahası, Kırkağaç ve Akhisar ovaları ile Çandarlı Körfezi arasında, kuzeydoğu-güneybatı yönünde uzanır. Yüzölçümü 3521,70 km² dir. Yunt Dağı ve çevresinde karakteristik Akdeniz iklimi hüküm sürmektedir. Sahanın iklim özelliklerinin ortaya çıkmasında hava kütlelerinin yıllık hareketleri, yükselti, engebelilik, dağların uzanışı, deniz etkisi ve bakı şartları etkili olmaktadır. Araştırma sahasında yıllık ortalama sıcaklık 15,3 C (Soma) ile 16,9 C (Manisa); yıllık amplitüt ise 18 C (Aliağa) ile 21,6 C (Manisa) arasındadır. Rüzgârlar, topoğrafik şartlara uygun bir durum sergileyerek E-W ve NE-SW yönlerinden etkin olarak esmektedir. Yıllık ortalama nispi nem oranı en fazla Akhisar’da (%63), en az Soma’da (%55) tespit edilmiştir. Etüt sahasında yıllık ortalama yağış miktarı Manisa’da 704,6 mm, Soma’da 652,4 mm, Akhisar’da 563,3 mm, Menemen’de 555,8 mm, Kınık’ta 488,4 mm ve Aliağa’da 484 mm dir. Yıl içinde düşen yağışın yaklaşık yarısı kış mevsiminde görülmektedir. Yaz mevsimi oldukça kuraktır. İlkbahar mevsimi sonbahara göre daha yağışlı geçer. E. de Martonne ve Erinç formüllerine göre Soma, Akhisar, Menemen ve Manisa yarı nemli, Kınık ve Aliağa yarı kurak iklim sahası içinde kalmaktadır. Köppen’nin iklim tasnifine göre Soma, Kınık, Akhisar, Aliağa ve Menemen Csap ve Manisa Csap' ile gösterilen “ Kışı ılık, yazı sıcak ve kurak iklim (Akdeniz iklimi) tipi” ne girer. Bu çalışma coğrafya biliminin ilkelerine bağlı kalınarak Yunt Dağı ve çevresinin iklim özelliklerini ortaya koymak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır.The Yunt Mountain and the surrounding area is located by Main Aegean Side of Aegean Region between Bakırçay and Gediz depressions. This field which shows a rugged topography feature, extends through northeast-southwest direction from Kırkağaç and Akhisar plains to çandarlı Gulf. Its area is approximately 3521.70 square kilometers. The Yunt Mountain (1076m) which gives its name to the region, is located roughly in the middle of the survey area. The Soma Mountains (the Somasivrisi Hill 1109m, the çamlıca Hill 1207m) located in the northeast of the Yunt Mountain and the volcanic mass that is the Dumanlı Mountain (1091m) located in the southeast of the Yunt Mountain form the highest and defective parts of the field. The Yunt Mountain and the geological structure around consist of Paleozoic and Mesozoic aged basic structures and cover formations related to Neogene and Quaternary. The volcanics related to Miocene take a large place in the field. The natural vegetation which is growing due to the climatic characteristics of the area, has been destroyed by anthropogenic influences. Therefore, whereas in high regions the forests formed by the red pine, black pine and oak communities are dominant, in low regions lemur and garig communities are seen. Brown, lime-free soils and brown forest soils in the mountainous and hilly areas of the survey area and alluvial and colluvial soils in graben areas and lowland areas are seen as common. The working area has a rich potential in terms of cold and hot water supplies. In the region where the rivers have seasonal flow in general, Gediz, Bakırçay, the Güzelhisar River, the Kum Stream, the Medar Stream, and the Gök Stream are the most important streams of the area. In order to demonstrate the climate properties of the Yunt Moutain and its surrounding, the data of Soma (16 years), Kınık (14 years), Aliağa (8 years), Menemen (30 years), and Manisa (31 years) meteorological stations are used. Planetary and geographical factors play an important role on the climate properties of the field. The general air circulation with heat energy reaching from the sun and annual movements of air masses are the major planetary factors. The physical geographic characteristics such as effect of the sea, altitude, lying of the mountains and the examination requirements reveals climate features by causing change in planetary factors. The annual sunshine duration in the study area is about 7 hours. The sun&#8217;s rays are coming with a difference of 47° 29´ throughout the year. According to data from six meteorological stations in the field, the average annual temperature varies between 15.3 °C (Soma) and 16.9 °C (Manisa). Annual amplitude is ranging between 18 °C (Aliaga) and 21.6 °C (Manisa). The average temperature in winter is changing between 6.5 °C (Soma) and 8.5 °C (Aliağa, Menemen), whereas the average temperature in summer is changing between 24.9 °C (Soma) and 27.2 °C (Manisa). The average temperature in autumn is higher than the spring. Whereas the average temperature in spring can reach up to 15.4 °C (Manisa), the average temperature in autumn reaches up to 17.7 °C (Manisa). According to the numeric values, it is demonstrated that there is a difference of 18.7 °C between summer and winter, a difference of 2.3 °C between autumn and spring, the summer season is much hotter than the winter season, and the high temperatures in summer have a slight effect in autumn season. The number of the frosty days in the meteorological stations of the research field does not reach a large total. The annual total of the frosty days are 49.9 in Akhisar, 33.8 in Soma, 30.7 in Kınık, 28.3 in Manisa, 11.9 in Menemen, and 11.4 in Aliağa. These values reveal that the number of the frosty days is increasing from shore to inland according to the increase of the terrestrial degree. The average pressure in the research field is 1000.1mb in Akhisar, and 1007.2mb in Manisa. The difference between extreme months is 8.6mb in Akhisar, and 8.3 mb in Manisa. the lowest monthly average pressure in the year is seen in July (Akhisar 999.1mb, Manisa 1002.4mb). Generally east-west and northeast-southwest sectored winds are blowing effectively in the year in the Yunt Mountain and around. It is possible to see that in the annual wind frequency roses of the meteorological stations. In Soma 22.9% NW, in Kınık 36.8% NE, in Aliağa 31.4% NE, in Akhisar 37% N, in Menemen 40% E, in Manisa 23.1% E directed winds blow more than the winds that blow from other directions. Annual wind frequencies and directions identified in the observation stations present an appropriate situation for the orographic conditions of the site. When the fastest wind directions and speeds are taken into account, it is determined that the winds are blowing more quickly in Menemen, Akhisar, and Manisa. The wind that has the highest speed in Soma with 8 m/sec. is blowing from NW, in Kınık with 7 m/sec. is blowing from SW, in Akhisar with 32.2 m/sec. is blowing from WSW, in Aliağa 9 m/sec. is blowing from NE, in Menemen with 22,5 m/sec. is blowing from S, in Manisa with 36.2 m/sec. is blowing from SW. The arrival directions of the fastest winds are different. The fastest winds are blowing in Soma from SW, S, and NW, in Kınık from SW, in Akhisar from WSW and SSE, in Aliağa from NE and SW, in Menemen from S and SE, in Manisa in SW and S. The amount of the relative humidity in the research field is changing between 43% and 52% in June and July in which the temperature increases and the cloud cover rate decreases, whereas it is changing between 66% and 75% in December and January in which the temperature decreases and the atmospheric activity increases. The annual average relative humidity rate is 55% in Soma, 58% in Menemen, 59% in Aliağa, 60% in Kınık and Manisa, and 63% in Akhisar. The annual average cloudiness rates in the field are generally low. The annual average cloudiness is 3.4 in Akhisar, 3.5 in Menemen, 3.6 in Manisa, 3.9 in Aliağa and Soma, and 4.3 in Kınık. The average monthly rate of cloudiness varies depending on the effect of air masses during the year. The average cloudiness is increased to 5 &#8211; 6 especially in winter months in which the atmospheric activity is increased. The annual sum of foggy days in the research field is 17.7 days in Soma, 14.7 days in Manisa, 5.1 days in Akhisar, 3.5 days in Kınık, 1.4 days in Aliağa, and 0.5 day in Menemen. When the distribution of foggy days during the year is examined, foggy days are encountered in all months except July and August. However, high values are seen in the number of the average foggy days in November, December and January. The Yunt Mountain and surrounding receives abundant rainfall during the winter months in which the transition frequency of frontal depressions is maximum. While entering the summer season more dry and stable air masses occupies the area and during summer season drought prevails. When the annual precipitation rates of the meteorological stations are examined, the rainfall in Manisa is 704.6mm, in Soma is 652.4mm, in Akhisar is 563.3mm, in Menemen is 555.8mm, in Kınık is 488.4mm and in Aliağa is 484mm. Depending on these rates, the annual average rainfall in the research field is ranging between 704.6mm and 484mm. According to the monthly average rainfall the most rainfalls are seen in December in all observation stations except in Soma. The lowest values of the average rainfall belong to the months July and August. In the field, close to half of the portion of precipitation falling during the year or more than the half is seen in Winter (December, January, February). In Summer (June, July, August), the amount of the rainfall is extremely fall. Spring is more rainy than the Autumn. The annual number of rainy days is maximum in Manisa with 107.8 days and minimum in Aliağa with 63.5 days. The number of rainy days at other observations stations is 98.9 days in Akhisar, 97.1 days in Soma, 87.8 days in Menemen, and 83 days in Kınık. The number of snowy days at Yunt Mountain and around is less. According to the average annual number of snowy days, it is determined that the number of snowy days in Soma is 5.1 days, in Manisa is 3.2 days, in Kınık is 3.1 days, in Akhisar is 2.9 days, in Aliağa is 1.4 days, in Menemen is 0.2 day. According to the distribution of snowy days to the months, it is observed that the snowfall occurs in Soma, Kınık, and Manisa in 5-month period between November and March, in Akhisar and Aliağa in 4-month period between December and March, in Menemen in January and February. In order to determine the climate classification of Yunt Mountain and its surrounding area, the formulas of E. de Martonne (1923), Erinç (1965), Thornthwaite (1948) and Köppen (1928) were used. According to the formulas of E. de Martonne and Erinç, Soma, Akhisar, Menemen and Manisa are in the semi-humid climate region, Kınık and Aliağa are in the semi-arid climate region. According to Thornthwaite climate classification, Aliağa, Menemen, and Akhisar take place in the dry and less humid third order mesothermal climate type that is having very strong excess of water in winter and close to the marine conditions which is denoted by C1 B'3 s2 b'3. Kınık takes place in the dry and less humid third order mesothermal climate type that is having moderate excess of water in winter and close to the marine conditions which is denoted by C1 B'3 s b'3. Soma takes place in the semi-wet second order mesothermal climate type that is having very strong water shortage in summer and close to the marine conditions which is denoted by B'2 s2 b'3. Soma takes place in the semi-humid third order mesothermal climate type that is having very strong water shortage in summer and close to the marine conditions which is denoted by C2 B'3 s2 b'3. According to Köppen&#8217;s climate classification, Soma, Kınık, Akhisar, Aliağa, and Menemen take place in the warm winter, hot summer, and arid climate (Mediterranean climate) which is denoted by Csap and Manisa Csap&#8217;. As a result, the climate of the Yunt Mountain and the surrounding area is warm and rainy in winters, hot and dry in summers, moderately wet and close to the effect of the ocean.
SourceSelçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi