Utilization of germinated ancient wheat (Emmer and Einkorn) flours to improve functional and nutritional properties of bread
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CitationCankurtaran Kömürcü, T., Bilgiçli, N. (2023). Utilization of germinated ancient wheat (Emmer and Einkorn) flours to improve functional and nutritional properties of bread. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 84, 1-8.
Germinated and untreated ancient (Einkorn and Emmer) and modern (Esperia) wheat flours (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used in bread dough to improve functional and nutritional properties of bread according to (3 x 2 x 5) x 2 factorial design. Utilization of wheat varieties in the germinated form increased the ash, total dietary fiber (TDF), total yellow pigment (TYP), total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, Ca, Fe and Mg content of bread, and also the most increments in those values (except TYP) were observed in Emmer flour usage. Germinated wheat flour decreased the mean phytic acid contents of bread samples from 313.32 mg/100 g to 291.81 mg/100 g compared to untreated wheat flour. The use of ancient wheat flour (einkorn and emmer) gave lower bread volume compared to modern bread wheat flour. The use of germinated wheat flour decreased the crust and crumb L* values of the breads but increased the a* and b* values. As a result, increasing ratios of germinated ancient wheat flour increased the functional component and nutritional value of the bread, and at the same time, its usage at low ratio contributed positively to the technological quality of the bread.